[Congenital neutrophil defects and periodontal diseases].
ABSTRACT An alteration of the immune system function is one of the main factors involved in the development of periodontal disease. Polymorpho-nuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) play a crucial role in the cell-mediated immune response against bacterial challenge. The mechanism of neutralization of pathogen microorganisms by PMNs involves many different steps: adhesion to capillary endothelium in the inflamed region, trans-endothelial migration, chemotaxis, phagocytosis and, ultimately, bacterial killing by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. A defect in one of these steps leads to altered neutrophil function and, consequently, to a higher host susceptibility to periodontal tissue infection. The main intrinsic neutrophil diseases such as neutropenia, leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD-1), Chediak-Higashi syndrome, Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), are often related to severe and early-onset forms of periodontitis, as described by many evidences in the literature. Therefore PMN dysfunctions, both intrinsic and extrinsic, represent an important risk factor for periodontal disease. Studies on the basic molecular mechanisms of such dysfunctions, also in terms of genetic polymorphisms, recently allowed to identify some specific markers related to a higher susceptibility to the development of disease. Many researches have yet to be performed aiming to gain insight on the dynamics of PMN activation and interaction with other cells, in order to improve and modulate neutrophil function and to develop specific approaches for care and prevention of periodontal diseases.
- SourceAvailable from: Tsuyoshi Fujita[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Epithelial cells function as mechanical barriers against invasion by pathogenic organisms and promote intercellular communication through cell–cell junction complexes. Therefore, the permeability of the gingival epithelial cell layer indicates a defensive capability against invasion by periodontal pathogens. Accumulation of activated neutrophils is thought to be involved in the onset of inflammation. Here, we review the effects of irsogladine maleate, a medication for gastric ulcers, on E-cadherin and chemokine expression in gingival epithelial cells exposed to periodontopathogenic bacteria, in order to examine the clinical efficacy of irsogladine maleate in preventing periodontal inflammation.Journal of Oral Biosciences 05/2012; 54(2):79–82.
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ABSTRACT: Current evidence indicates that periodontal disease is frequently due to inappropriate levels of gingival granulocyte functions. Reason of this failure may be the toxic effects of a number of local or systemic exogenous factors, capable of spreading through the gingival crevice environment, and strongly conditioning the granulocyte activities. The wide list includes bacteria and granulotoxic products, hedonistic drugs (mainly tobacco), and chemotherapeutic agents (especially antimicrobials used for preventing or reducing the accumulation of dental plaque). Almost always, their presence induces a time- and/or dose-dependent toxicity.Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 04/2010; 33(1):1-10. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dietary modification may be important in the prevention and control of chronic adult periodontitis. The role of promoting an adequate consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains in chronic periodontitis has not been thoroughly investigated. The main aim of this dietary intervention study was to assess the influence of a customised dietary intervention (aiming to increase the consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains) on antioxidant status in adults with chronic periodontitis. Fifty-one participants, aged 30-65 years, were recruited from a UK Dental Hospital and randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. Both groups received normal clinical treatment but customised dietary advice was delivered to the intervention group by a community nutrition assistant. Dietary intakes, anthropometric parameters and biochemical indices with respect to blood and saliva and periodontal indices were evaluated at baseline, as well as at 3 and 6 months post-dietary intervention. At 3 and 6 months post-intervention, the intervention group showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity measured by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay compared to the control group. At 3 and 6 months after dietary intervention, the intervention group had significantly higher intakes of fruits and vegetables compared to the control group. The intake of whole grain was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group, 6 months post-intervention. No significant differences were observed with respect to periodontal indices between groups. It is suggested that dietary advice may help to improve dietary habits and, consequently, the antioxidant status of patients with chronic periodontitis. However, the impact of such intervention on periodontal indices needs further investigation.Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 12/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor