Developmental instability in japanese quail genetically selected for contrasting adrenocortical responsiveness.
ABSTRACT Differences in developmental instability were assessed with Japanese quail of two lines that had been genetically selected over several generations for reduced (low stress, LS) or exaggerated (high stress, HS) plasma corticosterone response to brief mechanical restraint. At 32 wk of age, three bilateral traits were selected for study in each quail line. The characteristics chosen were length of the metatarsus (shank length, SHL), diameter of the shank (SHD) perpendicular to the spur, and distance between the auditory canal and the nares (face length, FL). Significantly greater bilateral trait size variances were associated with the measurement of SHL (P < 0.0088) and FL (P < 0.0016) in the HS line than in the LS line. SHD variances did not differ (P = 0.22) in quail of the HS and LS lines. These findings suggest that developmental instability (i.e., fluctuating asymmetry, FA) is more pronounced in HS quail than in LS quail. Previous studies have shown that not only do quail of the HS line show greater adrenocortical responsiveness to a wide range of stressors but that they are also more easily frightened than LS birds. Therefore, the line differences in FA found here may reflect the birds' differential responsiveness to chronic social and physical environmental stressors. The present findings also support previous suggestions that measuring asymmetries in bilateral traits could be an additional and valid method of assessing stress and of comparing phenotypic stability in selected populations.
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ABSTRACT: Stress-induced glucocorticoids can dampen learning and spatial memory via neuronal damage to the hippocampus. Cognition losses can be transient (associated with acute stress episodes) or permanent as in aged individuals who show chronic glucocorticoid-induced accelerated brain aging and neurodegeneration (dementia). Thus, chronic versus acute stress effects on spatial memory responses of quail selected for reduced (low stress, LS) or exaggerated (high stress, HS) plasma corticosterone (B) response to brief restraint were assessed. Aged food-motivated male LS and HS quail were tested for 10 min in a feed-baited 8-arm radial arm maze (RAM) 1) at 255 d of age (quail who had experienced lifelong management stressors but who were otherwise never intentionally stressed; that is, chronically stressed birds), 2) on the next day post-acute stressor treatment (5 min of restraint), and 3) on the next day without treatment (acute stress recovery). The RAM tests used the win-shift procedure in which visited arms were not rebaited. Radial arm maze performance was measured by determination of the total number of arm choices made, the number of correct entries made into baited arms out of the first 8 choices, the time required to make a choice, and the number of pellets eaten. Line effects (P < 0.001 in all cases) were detected for total number of arm choices made (HS < LS), number of correct entries made into baited arms out of the first 8 choices (HS < LS), time required to make a choice (HS > LS), and number of pellets eaten (HS < LS). However, neither the effects of day of RAM testing nor its interaction with line further influenced these variables. Thus, although selection for divergent plasma B responsiveness to an acute stressor was found to be associated with severe impairment of spatial memory in aged male HS compared with LS quail, the observed spatial memory impairments (HS > LS) could not be further altered by acute stressor treatment. Line differences in cognition may reflect lifelong management-induced stress episodes that periodically produce higher plasma B responses in HS than LS quail, which underlie HS quail memory deficits, or other etiologies, or both.Poultry Science 04/2010; 89(4):633-42. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) represents random, minor deviations from perfect symmetry in paired traits. Because the development of the left and right sides of a paired trait is presumably controlled by an identical set of genetic instructions, these small imperfections are considered to reflect genetic and environmental perturbations experienced during ontogeny. The current paper aims to identify possible neuroendocrine mechanisms, namely the actions of steroid hormones that may impact the development of asymmetrical characters as a response to various stressors. In doing so, it provides a review of the published studies on the influences of glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens on FA and concomitant changes in other health and fitness indicators. It follows the premise that hormonal measures may provide direct, non-invasive indicators of how individuals cope with adverse life conditions, strengthening the associations between FA and health, fitness, and behavior.Symmetry. 01/2010;
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ABSTRACT: Japanese quail selected for reduced (low-stress, LS) rather than exaggerated (high-stress, HS) plasma corticosterone response to brief restraint have consistently shown greater cloacal gland (CG) development, an androgen-dependent trait. In this study, the effects of testosterone implants on levels of plasma testosterone and CG development in castrated LS and HS quail were determined. Stress-line males were castrated and randomly allocated to 1 of 3 testosterone treatments: the empty testosterone (ET), low testosterone (LT), or high testosterone (HT) implant group. Cloacal gland volume was determined at 4 weekly intervals that represented ranges of 1 to 9 d, 8 to 17 d, 15 to 24 d, and 22 to 31 d after castration and testosterone implantation. Levels of plasma testosterone were also assessed at the end of the study. Development of the CG was affected by quail line (LS > HS), testosterone treatment (HT > LT > ET), and time of measurement (1 to 9 d < 8 to 17 d < 15 to 24 d = 22 to 31 d after castration and testosterone implantation). A significant interaction between testosterone treatment and time of measurement on CG volume was also detected (with CG volume generally increasing with time in LT- and HT-treated quail, but not in ET-treated quail). However, even though HT implant treatments induced higher CG development than did LT treatments beyond the first interval of CG volume measurement, and despite the finding of greater CG volumes in LS than HS quail during the last 2 measurement intervals within each of the LT and HT groups, no interaction was observed between testosterone implant dosages and quail stress line on CG volume. Thus, by the end of the study, regardless of testosterone dose, CG volume was consistently greater in LS quail than in their HS counterparts. In addition, although, as expected, the testosterone implant treatment significantly altered levels of plasma testosterone (HT > LT > ET), neither quail line nor its interaction with testosterone treatment affected plasma testosterone. The present findings suggest that the often-observed depressed CG development in the HS line may be independent of testosterone effects.Poultry Science 12/2010; 89(12):2691-8. · 1.52 Impact Factor
Developmental Instability in Japanese Quail Genetically Selected
for Contrasting Adrenocortical Responsiveness1
D. G. Satterlee,*,2G. G. Cadd,* and R. B. Jones†
*Applied Animal Biotechnology Laboratories, Department of Poultry Science, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station,
Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisana 70803; and
†Welfare Biology Group, Roslin Institute (Edinburgh), Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9PS, Scotland
were assessed with Japanese quail of two lines that had
been genetically selected over several generations for re-
duced (low stress, LS) or exaggerated (high stress, HS)
plasma corticosterone response to brief mechanical re-
straint. At 32 wk of age,three bilateral traits were selected
for study in each quail line. The characteristics chosen
ter of the shank (SHD) perpendicular to the spur, and
distance between the auditory canal and the nares (face
length, FL). Significantly greater bilateral trait size vari-
ances were associated with the measurement of SHL (P
< 0.0088) and FL (P < 0.0016) in the HS line than in the
LS line. SHD variances did not differ (P = 0.22) in quail
Differences in developmental instability
(Key words: quail, fluctuating asymmetry, corticosterone, stress)
2000 Poultry Science 79:1710–1714
Developmental instability is attracting growing inter-
est because it is thought to reflect the inability of individ-
ual organisms to produce a stable phenotype under
given environmental conditions (Parsons, 1990; Moller
and Swaddle, 1997; Moller et al., 1999). Unlike genetic
preprogrammingthat canlead toantisymmetry ordirec-
tional asymmetry, developmental instability produces
fluctuating asymmetry(FA) or small,random deviations
from symmetry in otherwise bilaterally symmetrical
Thomson, 1999). In other words, differences between the
size of left and right bilateral characters are normally
distributed with a mean of zero and a variance governed
by the amount of developmental instability (Van Valen,
1962; Thomson, 1999).
It has been proposed that FA is caused by genetic and
environmental stress, and its occurrence has been noted
Received for publication October 29, 1999.
Accepted for publication August 17, 2000.
1Approved for publication by the Director of the Louisiana Agricul-
tural Experiment Station as manuscript Number 99-46-0567.
2To whom correspondence should be addressed: dsatterlee@agctr.
of the HS and LS lines. These findings suggest that devel-
opmental instability (i.e., fluctuating asymmetry, FA) is
more pronounced in HS quail than in LS quail. Previous
studies have shown that not only do quail of the HS
rangeofstressors butthattheyarealso moreeasilyfright-
ened than LS birds. Therefore, the line differences in FA
found here may reflect the birds’ differential respon-
siveness to chronic social and physical environmental
stressors.The presentfindings alsosupport previoussug-
gestions that measuring asymmetries in bilateral traits
could be an additional and valid method of assessing
stress and of comparing phenotypic stability in selected
in a variety of mammalian and avian species (Palmer
and Strobeck, 1986; Jones, 1987; Parsons, 1990; Moller
and Swaddle, 1997; Thomson, 1999). Inbreeding, the in-
troduction of novel mutants into the genome, and hy-
bridization are among the genetic factors that increase
FA, whereas the environmental causes include parasitic
infestation, pathologies, feed deprivation, forced expo-
sure to novelty, loud sounds, and social stress (Parsons,
1990; Moller and Swaddle, 1997). More specifically, FA
was more pronounced in chickens with tibial dyschon-
droplasia and in those reared under high stocking densi-
ties or under permanent light (Moller et al., 1995, 1999).
Strong directional selection, such as that imposed by
animal breeders, may also be particularly influential in
increasing developmental instability. For example,
asymmetry was greater in White Leghorn lines that had
been selected for contrasting antibody response to sheep
red blood cells (Siegel and Gross, 1980) than in their
reciprocal crosses (Yang et al., 1997; Yang and Siegel,
Abbreviation Key: FA = fluctuating asymmetry; FL = face length;
G = generation; HS = high stress; LS = low stress; RA = relative asymme-
try; SHL = shank length; SHD = shank diameter.
DEVELOPMENTAL INSTABILITY AND ADRENOCORTICAL RESPONSIVENESS
The potential value of using asymmetries of bilateral
traitsastools inthestudyofevolution andanimalbreed-
This approach also has considerable strategic relevance
for farm animals. For example, the magnitude of asym-
metries might be used as a valid measure of stress, as a
way of comparing developmental instability between
populations, and as a means of identifying the optimal
rearing conditions for domestic animals (Yang et al.,
1997; Moller et al., 1995, 1999). Such information could
have important implications for well-being and produc-
tivity, both of which can be seriously compromised if
Intuitively, genetic lines that have been selected over
several generations for differences in their physiological
and behavioral responsiveness to stressful stimulation
would be particularly powerful tools for studying devel-
opmental instability. Therefore, in the present study the
occurrence and magnitude of asymmetries were studied
in divergent lines of Japanese quail that had been se-
lected for low (LS, low stress) or high (HS, high stress)
plasma corticosterone responses to brief mechanical re-
straint (Satterlee and Johnson, 1988). These genetic lines
are particularly suitable for exploring the above issues
ently exerted a nonspecific effect on stress susceptibility
to a wide variety of stressors, e.g., cold, crating, food and
water deprivation, social tension, and manual restraint,
than did HS birds (Satterlee and Johnson, 1988; Jones et
al., 1994; Jones, 1996). Second, selection has also influ-
enced underlying fearfulness (propensity to be easily
frightened by diverse events). Fear responses were con-
sistently less pronounced in LS than HS quail when they
were exposed to human beings, exposed areas, unfamil-
iar objects and places, or mechanical restraint (Jones et
al., 1992a,b, 1994, 1999; Satterlee and Jones, 1995; Jones
and Satterlee, 1996). Third, not only is the Japanese quail
an important agricultural species in many countries
(Baumgartner, 1994), but it is also thought to be a useful
model for other more commercially important species,
suchasthe domesticfowl(MillsandFaure, 1992;Aggrey
and Cheng, 1994).
In the first of a series of projected studies, attempts
were made to illuminate the potential role of environ-
mental stress in determining developmental instability.
More specifically, the hypothesis was tested that quail
from genetic lines selected for reduced or exaggerated
sensitivity to stressful stimulation would show de-
creased or elevated levels of FA, respectively. Three bi-
lateral traits were measured in adult male quail from
the LS and HS lines that had been housed in same-line
breeding groups for 26 wk. It was reasoned that they
would likely have been exposed to a variety of environ-
mental stressors (e.g., human traffic, extraneous noises,
3Petersime Incubator Co., Gettysburg, OH 45328.
and interbird aggression) during this time. Fluctuating
asymmetries were then compared between the two lines
by calculating intra-individual variances in trait size
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Genetic Stocks and Husbandry
ica) were studied from two genetic lines that were se-
lected over several generations for low (LS) or high (HS)
plasma corticosterone response to brief mechanical im-
mobilization (Satterlee and Johnson, 1988). After pedi-
sterone levels postimmobilization were 156 and 54% of
the values measured in nonselected controls in the HS
and LS lines, respectively (Satterlee and Johnson, 1988).
erations, after which the lines were maintained for six
generations without selection. Nonselection was accom-
plished by colony breeding of family crosses within a
line, avoiding only full-sib matings. Despite relaxation
of the selection pressure during generation 15 (G15) to
G19, examination of the lines at G20showed that diver-
gencehad beenmaintained; means± SEMofthe circulat-
ing corticosterone concentrations in HS and LS quail
exposed to the immobilization stressor were 19.4 ± 0.7
and 10.0 ± 0.5 ng/mL, respectively. Selection pressure
was reimposed to produce G21wherein immobilization
resulted in corticosterone concentrations of 29.0 ± 5.4
(Jones and Satterlee, 1996). The lines reproduced for an
additional three generations without selection before
their use in the present study (G24).
The quail studied were taken from a larger population
of an 800-bird hatch. Egg incubation and chick brooding,
feeding, and lighting procedures were similar to those
described elsewhere (Jones and Satterlee, 1996) with the
sex, mixed-line groups of 50 within each of 16 compart-
ments of two Model 2SD-12 Petersime brooder batteries3
modified for quail. To maintain the line identity of each
bird, leg bands (placed on chicks at hatching) were re-
placed with permanent wing bands at 14 d of age.
of 10 females and 5 males were placed into 24 colony
cages for breeding (i.e., 12 cages of LS quail and 12 cages
of HS quail). Throughout a laying cycle of 26 wk, and
when extra birds were available, breeders that had natu-
rally succumbed, escaped, or were removed for mechan-
ical reasons were replaced by same-line, same-sex, full-
sibling quail from the original hatch. This practice in-
sured that a high number of experimental units would
be available in each line at the end of the experiment as
the intent was to take measurements on aged quail (32
wk). We reasoned that if exposure to stressful stimula-
tion is positively related to age, then environmentally
SATTERLEE ET AL.
TABLE 1. Bilateral trait means ± SEM for sides (left, L; right, R) and side differences (L minus R)
at 32 wk of age by quail line1
TraitLRL − RLRL − R
35.43 ± 0.12
2.71 ± 0.02
18.79 ± 0.06
35.44 ± 0.11
2.67 ± 0.02
18.66 ± 0.06
−0.01 ± 0.04
0.04 ± 0.01
0.13 ± 0.06
35.93 ± 0.14
2.66 ± 0.02
19.07 ± 0.07
35.90 ± 0.13
2.64 ± 0.02
19.00 ± 0.10
0.03 ± 0.06
0.02 ± 0.01
0.07 ± 0.09
1LS = low stress; HS = high stress.
2Distance between nares and auditory canal.
induced line differences of developmental instability
should be more pronounced in older quail.
Breeders received a laying diet (21% CP and 2,750 kcal
ME/kg) and water ad libitum. A 16 h light:8 h darkness
photoperiod was provided with lights-on occurring at
0500h. Dailymaintenanceand feedingchores weredone
at the same time each day (0800 h).
At 32 wk of age, 53 LS and 60 HS quail were killed
by cervical dislocation. Data were obtained for the fol-
lowing bilateral traits: length of the metatarsus (shank)
(SHL), diameter of the shank (SHD) perpendicular to
the spur, and distance between the auditory canal and
the nares (face length, FL). The same person (blinded
to the experimental protocol) made all quail measure-
ments to the nearest 0.1 mm.
Having calculated absolute FA as the unsigned left-
right character sizes, many researchers (e.g., Yang et al.,
1997; Moller et al., 1999) have then divided this value
(RA) for each bilateral trait. Once summed, these mea-
sures were averaged to produce an overall RA score for
each animal. However, the use of unsigned asymmetries
is thought to be contentious (Swaddle et al., 1994; Gan-
gestad and Thornhill, 1998; Thomson, 1999) because it
violates the assumptions of normally distributed errors
as well as that of homogeneous variance inherent in
techniques like ANOVA, t-tests, and multiple linear re-
gressions. Therefore, in line with Thomson (1999), these
problems were avoided when comparing FA in the two
lines by focusing on intra-individual variance for SHL,
eral variance in trait size, Vind, was calculated from
Vind= (L2+ R2) − ([L + R]2/2).
After calculating Vindfor each individual (quail) within
a given trait and line, trait variance data were fitted to
a general linearized model with gamma errors and a
log link function using PROC GENMOD (SAS Institute,
1985). The dependent variable in each model was quail
line, and the independent variable was Vindof a given
68, 95, and 99.7% of the values in a normal population
are within one, two, or three standard deviations of the
population mean, respectively (SAS Institute, 1985), the
signed asymmetries of each trait were found to be nor-
mally distributed within the population mean for the
of directional asymmetry or antisymmetry. This justified
the use of Thomson’s (1999) procedures for the assess-
ment of intra-individual variance in trait size and subse-
quent analysis for line differences in developmental in-
Table 1 gives bilateral trait line means by side and
mean trait differences (left side minus right side) by
line. Table 2 shows the influence of quail line on intra-
individual, interlateral variances in bilateral trait sizes
(VLSvs. VHS) and the likelihood-ratio test statistic (X21)
associated with each line comparison. Significantly
greater bilateral trait size variances were associated with
the measurement of SHL (P < 0.0088) and FL (P < 0.0016)
in the HS line than in the LS line; however, quail of
the HS line did not show a significant tendency toward
greater (P = 0.22) SHD variance when compared with
quail of the LS line.
than LS quail in two (SHL and FL) of the three bilateral
TABLE 2. Influence of quail line (low stress, LS; high stress, HS)
on intra-individual, interlateral variances in bilateral trait sizes
(VLSvs. VHS)1and the likelihood-ratio test statistic (X21)
associated with each line comparison
Probability > X
1After measuring traits on each side of the body (L = left; R = right),
from Vind= (L2+ R2) − ([L + R]2/2) (see Thomson, 1999).
DEVELOPMENTAL INSTABILITY AND ADRENOCORTICAL RESPONSIVENESS
traits measured in the present study. The interlateral
variance for SHD was also numerically larger in HS than
LS birds, but this difference was not significant. These
findings suggest that developmental instability is more
pronounced in quail from a genetic line selected for
high plasma corticosterone responses rather than low
responses to brief immobilization (Satterlee and John-
Not only do quail of the HS line show greater adreno-
cortical responsiveness to a wide range of stressors, but
also they are also more easily frightened than LS birds
(Satterlee and Johnson, 1988; Jones et al., 1992a, 1999;
Given such contrasting levels of stress susceptibility and
underlying fearfulness, we might tentatively suggest
that the line differences in FA found here reflected the
birds’ differential responsiveness to social and physical
environmental stressors, such as those associated with
mating behavior, interbird aggression, human traffic,
cage cleaning, and extraneous noises. However, al-
though both lines have been subjected to a similar
amount of inbreeding, it cannot be guaranteed that the
resultant effects of such genetic stress (Parsons, 1990;
Moller and Swaddle, 1997) on FA would have been iden-
tical in the LS and HS birds. The inclusion of truly ran-
dombred, nonselected lines or reciprocal crosses in fu-
ture comparisons will allow meaningful assessment of
the role of genetic (directional selection) stress. Quail of
the nonselected Louisiana State University line were not
included in this study because they have been subjected
to inbreeding (genetic stress) over 24 generations.
The possible exploitation of individual variation in
fearfulness and in susceptibility to stress has important
implications for poultry breeding, welfare, and perfor-
mance. For example, in addition to the reduced stress-
responsiveness and fearfulness accompanying selection
of theLS line, thesequail also showlower stress-induced
osteoporosis and greater body weight than HS quail
(Satterlee and Roberts, 1990; Jones, 1996). Furthermore,
the present findings suggest that such genetic selection
stable phenotypes. The present results also support pre-
vious suggestions that measuring asymmetries in bilat-
eral traits could be an additional and valid method of
assessing stress and the suitability of housing systems
(Yang et al., 1997; Moller et al., 1999). Divergent lines,
such as the HS and LS quail, represent valuable models
for resolving some of these issues.
The contribution of R. B. Jones was supported by the
Roslin Institute and the Biotechnology and Biological
Sciences Research Council. The authors are also grateful
Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
70803, for their technical assistance and to P. B. Siegel
and A. Yang of the Department of Poultry Science, Vir-
ginia Tech, Blacksburgh, VA 24061, for their helpful
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