Elevated p21 mRNA level in skeletal muscle of DMD patients and mdx mice indicates either an exhausted satellite cell pool or a higher p21 expression in dystrophin-deficient cells per se.
ABSTRACT Abnormalities in proliferation and differentiation of the dystrophin-deficient muscle are a controversial aspect of the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Analyses of molecules involved in cell cycle modulation do not exist in this context. Cells withdrawn from the cell cycle permanently express p21. The fact that p2 1, in contrast to other cell cycle proteins, is not diminished when myotubes are reexposed to growth media, allocates this cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor a special function. Here we report for the first time statistically increased p21 mRNA levels in dystrophin-deficient muscle tissue. Only 42% of conventional RT-PCRs from six muscle samples of human controls yielded positive results but almost all skeletal muscle biopsy samples (87%) from DMD patients (n=5). For p21 mRNA quantification in murine muscle samples we were able to use the exact real-time TaqMan PCR method due to generally higher p21 mRNA levels than in human muscles. In addition, contamination with fibroblasts can be excluded for the murine samples because they do not demonstrate fibrosis at the age of 350 days but start to lose their regenerative capacity. In accord with the results in humans, we observed p21 mRNA levels in mdx mice that were approx. four times as high as those in control mice. Elevated p21 mRNA level may indicate a shift in cell composition towards differentiated p21 expressing cells as a result of an exhausted pool of undifferentiated, non-p21-expressing satellite cells due to previous cycles of de- and regeneration. Alternatively, dystrophin-deficient cells per se may express higher p21 levels for unknown reasons. Although we cannot distinguish between these possibilities, the eventual transfec tion of a patient's own satellite cells with p21 antisense oligonucleotides may enable the dystrophic process to be influenced.
Article: CXCL16-mediated cell recruitment to rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue and murine lymph nodes is dependent upon the MAPK pathway.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by profound mononuclear cell (MNC) recruitment into synovial tissue (ST), thought to be due in part to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), a therapeutic target for RA. Although chemokines may also be involved, the mechanisms remain unclear. We undertook this study to examine the participation of CXCL16, a novel chemokine, in recruitment of MNCs to RA ST in vivo and to determine the signal transduction pathways mediating this process. Using a human RA ST-SCID mouse chimera, immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and in vitro chemotaxis assays, we defined the expression and function of CXCL16 and its receptor, CXCR6, as well as the signal transduction pathways utilized by them for MNC homing in vitro and in vivo. CXCL16 was markedly elevated in RA synovial fluid (SF) samples, being as high as 145 ng/ml. Intense macrophage and lining cell staining for CXCL16 in RA ST correlated with increased CXCL16 messenger RNA levels in RA ST compared with those in osteoarthritis and normal ST. By fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, one-half of RA SF monocytes and one-third of memory lymphocytes expressed CXCR6. In vivo recruitment of human MNCs to RA ST implanted in SCID mice occurred in response to intragraft injection of human CXCL16, a response similar to that induced by TNFalpha. Lipofection of MNCs with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides for ERK-1/2 resulted in a 50% decline in recruitment to engrafted RA ST and a 5-fold decline in recruitment to regional lymph nodes. Interestingly, RA ST fibroblasts did not produce CXCL16 in response to TNFalpha in vitro, suggesting that CXCL16 protein may function in large part independently of TNFalpha. Taken together, these results point to a unique role for CXCL16 as a premier MNC recruiter in RA and suggest additional therapeutic possibilities, targeting CXCL16, its receptor, or its signaling pathways.Arthritis & Rheumatism 04/2006; 54(3):765-78. · 7.87 Impact Factor
Article: Differential expression of the angiogenic Tie receptor family in arthritic and normal synovial tissue.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Angiopoietins (Ang) are vascular endothelial cell-specific growth factors that play important roles principally during the later stages of angiogenesis. We have compared the distribution of the receptor tyrosine kinase (Tie) and the Ang ligands in synovial tissues from normal subjects and those with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). Immunohistochemical analysis was used to determine the expression of Ang-1, Ang-2, Tie1 and Tie2 in synovial tissue of normal subjects and those with RA and OA. Ang-1, Ang-2, Tie1 and Tie2 mRNA and protein expression were quantified in synovial tissues and RA synovial tissue fibroblasts with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. In RA, Ang-1 positive immunostaining on lining cells, macrophages and endothelial cells was significantly higher than in OA and normal synovial tissue. The expression pattern of Ang-2 in synovial tissue was similar in RA and OA, whereas the Ang-2 expression was low in normal tissue. Synovial tissue from subjects with RA and OA showed a significant upregulation of Tie1 on lining cells, macrophages and endothelial cells compared to that from normal subjects. Tie2 was significantly upregulated in the RA and OA synovial tissue lining cells, macrophages and smooth muscle cells compared to normal synovial tissue. Generally Ang-1, Ang-2, Tie1 and Tie2 mRNA levels were higher in RA synovial tissue compared to normal and OA synovial tissues, and RA synovial tissue fibroblasts. Western blot analysis also demonstrated greater Tie1 and Tie2 protein expression in RA and OA synovial tissue compared to RA synovial tissue fibroblasts. In conclusion, the dominance of Ang-1 mRNA and protein expression over Ang-2 is in agreement with an active neovascularization in RA synovial tissue.Arthritis Research 02/2002; 4(3):201-8.