Entamoeba histolytica: Production of nitric oxide and in situ activity of NADPH diaphorase in amebic liver abscess of hamsters

La Salle University, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
Parasitology Research (Impact Factor: 2.1). 02/2001; 87(1):49-56. DOI: 10.1007/s004360000287
Source: PubMed


Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites were inoculated into the liver of hamsters and serum nitrate/nitrite levels [expressed as nitric oxide (NO) production] were determined at different times during amebic liver abscess (ALA) development. We also tested the effects of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors such as N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), aminoguanidine, and dexamethasone during ALA production. Since NOS activity has been correlated with expression of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPHd) in tissues, we performed histochemistry studies to determine the activity of the latter in livers infected with E. histolytica trophozoites. Production of NO in serum was directly proportional to the size of ALAs, and NOS inhibitors caused low levels of NO and smaller ALAs. Our data suggest that NO does not have any lytic effect on E. histolytica trophozoites and is therefore incapable of providing protection against the amebic liver infection. In addition, NADPHd activity was detected histochemically in hepatocytes and inflammatory cells associated with focal necrosis containing trophozoites. The positive reactivity observed in these parasites may be attributable to a close biochemical similarity of NADPHd to the NADPH:flavin oxidoreductase described in E. histolytica by other investigators.

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Available from: Jesus Serrano-Luna, Jul 03, 2014
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    • "There is no direct in vivo evidence of ONOO−, probably due to its high reactivity [69, 70]. However, nitrate and nitrite, the products of spontaneous decomposition of this molecule, have been detected in the serum of hamsters with ALA [52, 53]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms by which Entamoeba histolytica causes amebic liver abscess (ALA) are still not fully understood. Amebic mechanisms of adherence and cytotoxic activity are pivotal for amebic survival but apparently do not directly cause liver abscess. Abundant evidence indicates that chronic inflammation (resulting from an inadequate immune response) is probably the main cause of ALA. Reports referring to inflammatory mechanisms of liver damage mention a repertoire of toxic molecules by the immune response (especially nitric oxide and reactive oxygen intermediates) and cytotoxic substances released by neutrophils and macrophages after being lysed by amoebas (e.g., defensins, complement, and proteases). Nevertheless, recent evidence downplays these mechanisms in abscess formation and emphasizes the importance of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). It seems that the defense mechanism of amoebas against ONOO(-), namely, the amebic thioredoxin system (including peroxiredoxin), is superior to that of mammals. The aim of the present text is to define the importance of ONOO(-) as the main agent of liver abscess formation during amebic invasion, and to explain the superior capacity of amoebas to defend themselves against this toxic agent through the peroxiredoxin and thioredoxin system.
    04/2014; 2014(1):324230. DOI:10.1155/2014/324230
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    • "Serum samples were incubated overnight and cell culture supernatants for 1 h [16]. In the second procedure supernatants were deproteinized with 30% w/v ZnSO 4 by incubating 100-l samples with 5 l ZnSO 4 [17]. In both cases, to sediment the precipitated proteins, the samples were centrifuged at 12,000g for 10 min at 4 °C and nitrite concentration was determined in the supernatant. "
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    ABSTRACT: Preparation of a nitrate reductase lysate of Escherichia coli MC1061 to measure nitrate and nitrite in biologic fluids is described. To obtain the crude bacterial lysate containing nitrate reductase activity, E. coli MC1061 was subjected to 16-20 freeze-thawing cycles, from -70 to 60 degrees C, until nitrite reductase activity was < or = 25%. Nitrate reductase activity was detected mainly in the crude preparation. To validate the nitrate reduction procedure, standard nitrate solutions (1.6-100 microM) were incubated with the nitrate reductase preparation for 3 h at 37 degrees C, and nitrite was estimated by the Griess reaction in a microassay. Nitrate solutions were reduced to nitrite in a range of 60-70%. Importantly, no cofactors were necessary to perform nitrate reduction. The biological samples were first reduced with the nitrate reductase preparation. After centrifugation, samples were deproteinized with either methanol/ether or zinc sulfate and nitrite was quantified. The utility of the nitrate reductase preparation was assessed by nitrate+nitrite determination in serum of animals infected with the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica or the bacteria E. coli and in the supernatant of cultured lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. Our results indicate that the nitrate reductase-containing lysate provides a convenient tool for the reduction of nitrate to determine nitrate+nitrite in biological fluids by spectrophotometric methods.
    Analytical Biochemistry 05/2004; 328(1):14-21. DOI:10.1016/j.ab.2004.01.026 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide is involved in the neutrophil and macrophage killing of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. In the present study, we found that cysteine proteinases, significant contributors to amebic virulence and alcohol dehydrogenase 2, an enzyme absolutely required for the survival of the parasite, are both significantly inhibited by S-nitroso-glutathione, a physiological nitric oxide donor, within the concentration range 0.5-2.0 m M.
    Parasitology Research 02/2003; 89(2):146-9. DOI:10.1007/s00436-002-0716-2 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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