A new flux-orientated concept to derive critical levels for ozone to protect vegetation.
ABSTRACT The current European critical levels for ozone (O3) to protect crops, natural and semi-natural vegetation and forest trees are based on a relative small number of open-top chamber experiments with a very limited number of plant species. Therefore, the working group "Effects of Ozone on Plants" of the Commission on Air Pollution Prevention of the Association of German Engineers and the German Institute of Standardization reanalysed the literature on O3 effects on European plant species published between 1989 and 1999. An exposure-response relationship for wild plant species and agricultural crops could be derived from 30 experiments with more than 30 species and 90 data points; the relationship for conifer and deciduous trees is based on 20 experiments with nine species and 50 data points. From these relationships maximum O3 concentrations for different risk stages are deduced, below which the vegetation type is protected on the basis of the respective criteria. Because it is assumed that the fumigation concentrations reflect the O3 concentrations at the top of the canopy, i.e. the upper surface boundary of the quasi-laminar layer if the micrometeorological big-leaf approach is applied, the application of these maximum O3 concentrations requires the transformation of O3 concentrations measured at a reference height above the canopy to the effective phytotoxic concentrations at the top of the canopy. Thus, the approach described in this paper is a synthesis of the classical concept of toxicology of air pollutants (critical concentrations) and the more toxicological relevant dose concept.
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ABSTRACT: Concentration of tropospheric ozone () was investigated for the South Korea. And then the critical ozone levels, expressed as AOT40 (Accumulated exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb) to vegetation have been used in this region within the UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) Convention on Long-Range Trans-boundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). Hourly ozone concentration data from 1996 to 2001 at 26 air monitoring stations was used to estimate the exceedance of the critical levels. It was calculated for daylight hours for each station, and mapped using surface interpolation over the South Korea. The critical levels of ozone have shown the highly exceeded value in the Gyeonggi region, southern coastal region and central inland of the South Korea. It was some different from the typical ozone distribution which represented highly in the western inland and coastal regions. The area exceeding the critical level for crops was founded to be more than 40% of the whole South Korean territory. While that for trees was to be about 17% of the South Korea. The critical ozone critical level was based upon data from experiments on specific species, and thus may not be fully representative for all types of vegetation. Nevertheless, the critical level and its exceedance of the ozone concentration would be one of the useful tools for international agreements on abatement strategies to prevent ecosystem damage.Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment. 06/2008; 24(3).
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ABSTRACT: Background In 1994, a “Pan-European Programme for Intensive and Continuous Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems” started to contribute to a better understanding of the impact of air pollution, climate change and natural stress factors on forest ecosystems. The programme today counts approximately 760 permanent observation plots including near 500 plots with data on both air quality and forest ecosystem impacts. Scope This paper first presents impacts of air pollution and climate on forests ecosystems as reported in the literature on the basis of laboratory and field research. Next, results from monitoring studies, both at a European wide scale and related national studies, are presented in terms of trends and geographic variations in nitrogen and sulphur deposition and ozone concentrations and the impacts of those changes in interaction with weather conditions on (i) water and element budgets and nutrient-acidity status, (ii) forest crown condition, (iii) forest growth and carbon sequestration and (iv) species diversity of the ground vegetation. The empirical, field based forest responses to the various drivers are evaluated in view of available knowledge. Conclusions Analyses of large scale monitoring data sets show significant effects of atmospheric deposition on nutrient-acidity status in terms of elevated nitrogen and sulphur or sulphate concentrations in forest foliage and soil solution and related soil acidification in terms of elevated aluminium and/or base cation leaching from the forest ecosystem. Relationships of air pollution with crown condition, however, appear to be weak and limited in time and space, while climatic factors appear to be more important drivers. Regarding forest growth, monitoring results indicate a clear fertilization effect of N deposition on European forests but the field evidence for impacts of ambient ozone exposure on tree growth is less clear.Plant and Soil 07/2014; 380(1-2):1-45. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ozone data from 13 rural and 11 urban sites for the growth season (April through September) during 1990-2006 have been analysed on the basis of recently introduced photochemical pollution indica-tors. The indicators predict that urban sites are prone to photochemical pollution, although compared to some rural sites, the urban sites have lower average ozone concentrations and showed lower values of time for which hourly average ozone concentration is above a threshold value. Interestingly, the frequency distribution of ozone concentrations, especially the frequency of very low (close to zero) concentrations, correlates well with the average ozone volume fraction during the growth period. The present analysis shows that photochemical pollution in the UK is less severe compared with photochemical pollution in central Europe and the Mediterranean region (Italy, Croatia, Slovenia).Croatica Chemica Acta 01/2013; 86(1):57-64. · 0.61 Impact Factor