Hepatic sarcoidosis with vanishing bile duct syndrome, cirrhosis, and portal phlebosclerosis. Report of an autopsy case.
ABSTRACT A few cases of sarcoidosis are associated with progressive liver disease, with a wide variety of clinicopathologic features. Herein, we report an autopsy case (65-year-old man). During an examination for liver dysfunction, cirrhosis with cholestatic dysfunction and splenomegaly were found. Needle liver biopsy revealed cirrhosis with lymphocytic piecemeal necrosis, dense septal fibrosis, and ductopenia. In addition, noncaseating epithelioid granuloma was also seen in the periportal region. Ductal enzymes and immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels were elevated, although antimitochondrial antibodies were negative. Instead, angiotensin-converting enzyme was elevated. He died of pulmonary failure and lung cancer. The autopsy liver (1,220 g) showed multinodular cirrhosis with broad and dense septa that divided the parenchyma. Mild lymphoid cell infiltration was seen in the periportal region. About a half of the interlobular bile ducts were lost, and the remaining bile ducts showed prominent periductal fibrosis, resembling sclerosing cholangitis. Interestingly, a few interlobular bile ducts showed chronic nonsuppurative cholangitis with epithelioid granulomas. Intrahepatic portal veins showed luminal narrowing with prominent phlebosclerosis. Hepatobiliary pathologies that resemble primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis and that are followed by vanishing bile duct syndrome, chronic active hepatitis-related cirrhosis, and intrahepatic portal venous phlebosclerosis occur in a single case of sarcoidosis.
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ABSTRACT: The patterns of hepatic injury were studied in 100 patients with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis and clinical evidence of liver disease that led to diagnostic liver biopsy. Granulomas were present in all patients; they occupied from < 1% to > 90% of the total volume of tissue examined and were most often located in the portal/periportal region. In none of the 100 cases were infectious organisms identified by special stains, culture, or serology. In 99% of cases, these granulomas were noncaseating; in one of the 100 cases central caseation was noted. In addition to the granulomas present in all biopsies, three broad categories of histologic change were found: cholestatic (58%), necroinflammatory (41%), and vascular (20%). Among those with cholestasis, 19 patients had bile duct lesions similar to primary biliary cirrhosis, whereas another 13 had a pattern of periductal fibrosis reminiscent of primary sclerosing cholangitis. In 37 patients with chronic cholestasis, a decrease in the number of bile ducts (ductopenia) was noted. Twelve patients had an acute cholangitis suggestive of mechanical obstruction--although no clinical evidence of ductal obstruction was found. Necroinflammatory changes included spotty necrosis suggesting hepatitis of diverse etiologies (including viral infection and drug reaction) and chronic portal inflammation suggestive of chronic active hepatitis. Vascular changes consisted of sinusoidal dilatation (14 cases) and nodular regenerative hyperplasia (9 cases). In 6% of the patients, the only changes in the biopsy were those of granulomatous inflammation; each of these patients had a dominant mass ("sarcoidoma"), which had been biopsied to rule out tumor. Fibrosis was seen in 21% of the biopsies--periportal (13%), bridging (2%), or cirrhosis (6%). It is clear that sarcoidosis can cause progressive liver disease with a wide array of histologic features that can mimic those of other primary liver diseases.American Journal of Surgical Pathology 01/1994; 17(12):1272-80. · 4.87 Impact Factor
- New England Journal of Medicine 04/1983; 308(10):572-5. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The development of the syndrome of chronic intrahepatic cholestasis in five young, black men who had systemic granulomatous disease and clinical features consistent with those of sarcoidosis is described. Clinical and biochemical aspects, similar to those of primary biliary cirrhosis, included pruritus, jaundice, hepatomegaly and striking elevations of serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol. (One patient had skin xanthomas.) Mitochondrial antibodies were not found; and survival of the patients (7 to 18 years) exceeded the usual survival of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. The histologic abnormalities included noncaseating granulomas, chronic intrahepatic cholestasis, increased copper in hepatocytes, progressive diminution in number of interiobular bile ducts, periportal fibrosis and the eventual development of a micronodular "biliary" cirrhosis. The histologic evolution of the disease suggests a slow, progressive destruction of the bile ducts by granulomas. Although the end stage of this syndrome resembles primary biliary cirrhosis, the characteristic nonsuppurative, destructive cholangitis of primary biliary cirrhosis was not present.The American Journal of Medicine 10/1975; 59(3):373-87. · 4.77 Impact Factor