Dietary fiber fraction of germinated barley foodstuff attenuated mucosal damage and diarrhea, and accelerated the repair of the colonic mucosa in an experimental colitis.
ABSTRACT Germinated barley foodstuff (GBF) contains protein and insoluble dietary fiber. We have previously shown in ulcerative colitis patients and a colitis model that GBF feeding attenuates mucosal damage by increasing luminal butyrate levels. However, the detailed mechanism remains unclear because of its heterogeneous nature. The present study was carried out to: (i) evaluate the active ingredient in GBF; and (ii) examine its effect on the repair process in colonic inflammation by using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model.
Colitis was induced by feeding a diet containing 0.5-3.5% DSS to male Sprague-Dawley rats. (i) Active ingredient: GBF was fractionated enzymatically into fiber- and protein-rich fractions. Each fraction was administered to DSS-colitis rats. Clinical signs, cecal short chain fatty acid concentrations and serum alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) levels were determined. (ii) Effect on mucosal repair: GBF with or without salazosulfapyridine (SASP), or SASP alone was administered to rats after the onset of colitis. Seven days after initial treatment, the number of epithelial cells in HE sections was evaluated morphologically in a blind fashion and serum AAG was determined.
(i) Germinate barley foodstuff and GBF-fiber significantly attenuated the clinical signs of colitis and decreased serum AAG levels, with a significant increase in cecal butyrate production, while GBF-protein did not. (ii) Treatment with GBF alone and GBF plus SASP significantly accelerated colonic epithelial repair and improved clinical signs.
These findings suggest that the fiber fraction of GBF may effectively enhance luminal butyrate production, and thereby accelerate colonic epithelial repair in colitis.
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ABSTRACT: Fiber intake is critical for optimal health. This review covers the anti-inflammatory roles of fibers using results from human epidemiological observations, clinical trials, and animal studies. Fiber has body weight-related anti-inflammatory activity. With its lower energy density, a diet high in fiber has been linked to lower body weight, alleviating obesity-induced chronic inflammation evidenced by reduced amounts of inflammatory markers in human and animal studies. Body weight-unrelated anti-inflammatory activity of fiber has also been extensively studied in animal models in which the type and amount of fiber intake can be closely monitored. Fermentable fructose-, glucose-, and galactose-based fibers as well as mixed fibers have shown systemic and local intestinal anti-inflammatory activities when plasma inflammatory markers and tissue inflammation were examined. Similar anti-inflammatory activities have also been demonstrated in some human studies that controlled total fiber intake. The anti-inflammatory activities of synbiotics (probiotics plus fiber) were reviewed as well, but there was no convincing evidence indicating higher efficacy of synbiotics compared with that of fiber alone. Adverse effects have not been observed with the amount of fiber intake or supplementation used in studies, although patients with Crohn's disease may be more sensitive to inulin intake. Several possible mechanisms that may mediate the body weight-unrelated anti-inflammatory activity of fibers are discussed based on the in vitro and in vivo evidence. Fermentable fibers are known to affect the intestinal microbiome. The immunomodulatory role of the intestinal microbiome and/or microbial metabolites could contribute to the systemic and local anti-inflammatory activities of fibers.Advances in Nutrition 01/2013; 4(1):16-28. · 3.20 Impact Factor
- Journal of Pharmacological Sciences - J PHARMACOL SCI. 01/2005; 99(4):329-334.