Dietary fiber fraction of germinated barley foodstuff attenuated mucosal damage and diarrhea, and accelerated the repair of the colonic mucosa in an experimental colitis.
ABSTRACT Germinated barley foodstuff (GBF) contains protein and insoluble dietary fiber. We have previously shown in ulcerative colitis patients and a colitis model that GBF feeding attenuates mucosal damage by increasing luminal butyrate levels. However, the detailed mechanism remains unclear because of its heterogeneous nature. The present study was carried out to: (i) evaluate the active ingredient in GBF; and (ii) examine its effect on the repair process in colonic inflammation by using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model.
Colitis was induced by feeding a diet containing 0.5-3.5% DSS to male Sprague-Dawley rats. (i) Active ingredient: GBF was fractionated enzymatically into fiber- and protein-rich fractions. Each fraction was administered to DSS-colitis rats. Clinical signs, cecal short chain fatty acid concentrations and serum alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) levels were determined. (ii) Effect on mucosal repair: GBF with or without salazosulfapyridine (SASP), or SASP alone was administered to rats after the onset of colitis. Seven days after initial treatment, the number of epithelial cells in HE sections was evaluated morphologically in a blind fashion and serum AAG was determined.
(i) Germinate barley foodstuff and GBF-fiber significantly attenuated the clinical signs of colitis and decreased serum AAG levels, with a significant increase in cecal butyrate production, while GBF-protein did not. (ii) Treatment with GBF alone and GBF plus SASP significantly accelerated colonic epithelial repair and improved clinical signs.
These findings suggest that the fiber fraction of GBF may effectively enhance luminal butyrate production, and thereby accelerate colonic epithelial repair in colitis.
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ABSTRACT: To develop a functional food from the dietary fiber fraction of germinated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (GBF), lactic acid fermentation was attempted using Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Bifidobacterium bifidus. The quality characteristics of the lactic acid-fermented product and its effect on gastrointestinal function in an animal model were examined. The anaerobic fermentation of 1% and 2% GBF yielded lactic acid bacteria at 8.9 +/- 1.0 x 10(8) and 1.6 +/- 0.2 x 10(9) colony-forming units/mL, and it was considered acceptable for consumption by sensory assessment. To determine the effect on gastrointestinal function, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with three types of diets: a normal chow diet and chow diets supplemented with 10% lactic acid bacteria or a yogurt fermented with 2% GBF (GBFY). The rats fed GBFY for 6 weeks gained less body weight, excreted more fecal mass, and had improved gastrointestinal transit as examined with barium sulfate. The effect of GBFY on colonic epithelial proliferation was investigated through loperamide (LPM)-induced constipation in rats. The rats fed with GBFY for 6 weeks were intraperitoneally administered LPM twice daily for 7 days. GBFY supplementation decreased fecal excretion and moisture content in feces and depleted goblet cells as observed by hematoxylin and eosin stain. However, the rats supplemented with GBFY prior to the LPM administration had enhanced bowel movement, mucin secretion, and production of short-chain fatty acids compared with values for the LPM-alone group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the GBFY supplement increased the numbers of nuclei stained positively for Ki-67 and extended from the base to the middle zone of crypts. These results indicate that GBFY alleviates constipation via the proliferation of the colonic crypts in LPM-administered rats.Journal of medicinal food 08/2010; 13(4):950-60. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fiber intake is critical for optimal health. This review covers the anti-inflammatory roles of fibers using results from human epidemiological observations, clinical trials, and animal studies. Fiber has body weight-related anti-inflammatory activity. With its lower energy density, a diet high in fiber has been linked to lower body weight, alleviating obesity-induced chronic inflammation evidenced by reduced amounts of inflammatory markers in human and animal studies. Body weight-unrelated anti-inflammatory activity of fiber has also been extensively studied in animal models in which the type and amount of fiber intake can be closely monitored. Fermentable fructose-, glucose-, and galactose-based fibers as well as mixed fibers have shown systemic and local intestinal anti-inflammatory activities when plasma inflammatory markers and tissue inflammation were examined. Similar anti-inflammatory activities have also been demonstrated in some human studies that controlled total fiber intake. The anti-inflammatory activities of synbiotics (probiotics plus fiber) were reviewed as well, but there was no convincing evidence indicating higher efficacy of synbiotics compared with that of fiber alone. Adverse effects have not been observed with the amount of fiber intake or supplementation used in studies, although patients with Crohn's disease may be more sensitive to inulin intake. Several possible mechanisms that may mediate the body weight-unrelated anti-inflammatory activity of fibers are discussed based on the in vitro and in vivo evidence. Fermentable fibers are known to affect the intestinal microbiome. The immunomodulatory role of the intestinal microbiome and/or microbial metabolites could contribute to the systemic and local anti-inflammatory activities of fibers.Advances in Nutrition 01/2013; 4(1):16-28. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Galacto-oligosaccharides potentially attenuate colonic inflammation by two mechanisms: through beneficial effects on intestinal microflora and by increasing the colonic short-chain fatty acid concentration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of galacto-oligosaccharides on the development of inflammation and on the growth of bifidobacteria in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis, a model that has been shown to benefit from short-chain fatty acid administration and to be associated with alterations in the colonic microflora. Rats were given daily either whey-derived or lactose-derived galacto-oligosaccharides (4 g kg(-1) day(-1), p.o.); starting 10 days before colitis induction, or dexamethasone (2 mg kg(-1) day(-1), s.c., a positive control), starting at colitis induction. Colon wet weight, macroscopic damage and myeloperoxidase activity were assessed 72 h after the induction of colitis. Faecal bifidobacteria were counted at the beginning of the study, and immediately before and 72 h after colitis induction. Galacto-oligosaccharides increased the colonic levels of bifidobacteria but also the levels of other bacterial species. Neither whey-derived nor lactose-derived galacto-oligosaccharides reduced the severity of inflammation. Galacto-oligosaccharides are able to modify gut microflora in severe TNBS-induced colitis, but unable to attenuate the inflammation.Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2002; 37(9):1042-7. · 2.33 Impact Factor