Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA from gingival crevicular fluid and its relation to virus presence in saliva.
ABSTRACT To search for a possible source of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in saliva, the presence and shedding patterns of HCV in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva of HCV viremic patients were assessed based on clinical, biochemical, histological, virological, and oral health parameters.
Saliva and GCF samples of 50 HCV viremic patients were collected to detect HCV RNA by a modified commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Clinical oral examination was performed and periodontal status at the collection sites was monitored. The results were correlated to specified parameters.
HCV RNA was detected in 59% (29/49) of the GCF specimens and in 35% (17/48) of the saliva specimens. In saliva specimens, HCV RNA was detected only in cases which also had detectable HCV RNA in the GCF samples (P=0.00002) and was significantly related to the presence of blood in saliva (P=0.03). Higher, but not significant, values of oral clinical parameters at the sites of fluid collection were found in GCF specimens harboring HCV RNA. In GCF specimens with no blood detected, HCV RNA was more often present in cases with higher plasma viral load (P=0.05).
The results suggest that besides blood, the other most probable source of HCV in saliva is GCF. Unknown endogenous HCV inhibitory mechanisms in the oral cavity may explain the discrepancies in HCV appearance between saliva and GCF. The results provide a biologic basis for further investigation of the role of HCV in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.
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ABSTRACT: Periodontal disease and systemic health are closely associated. However, there is no data supporting the association between periodontal disease and patients with liver diseases associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between periodontitis and progression of liver diseases in patients with HCV and/or HBV infection. In this retrospective study, 351 patients with HCV- and/or HBV-related liver diseases underwent screening for periodontal disease using the Salivaster® salivary occult blood test from February 2010 to June 2014. Furthermore, we examined the prevalence of fimbrillin (fimA) genotype of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) in 28 HCV-infected patients visited at our hospital between January 2013 and June 2014. P. gingivalis with fimA genotype with types I to V was further detected using a PCR method. Of 351 patients, 76 patients (group 1) had a strong positive result for salivary occult blood test and 275 patients (group 2) had weak positive or negative test results. Significant factors between the groups were obesity, level of AST, ALT, LDH, ALP, Alb, D.Bil, T.cho, AFP, platelets (Plt), IRI, HOMA-IR, current interferon (IFN) treatment and the daily frequency of tooth brushing. Between-groups analysis indicated that total protein (T.pro) level and liver fibrosis were significant factors. According to multivariate analysis, five factors were associated with periodontal disease as Plt count below 80000, brushing teeth only once a day, current IFN treatment, aged 65 years or older and obesity. The adjusted odds ratios for these five factors were 5.80, 3.46, 2.87, 2.50 and 2.33, respectively, and each was statistically significant. Twenty-eight saliva specimens had positive results for P. gingivalis with fimA genotype types I to V. The prevalence of fimA genotype II was higher in 14 patients with liver cirrhosis or a history of hepatocellular carcinoma treatment (group B, 50.00%) than 14 patients with only hepatitis C (group A, 21.43%). Periodontitis might be associated with progression of viral liver disease; hence, controlling oral disease is essential for the prevention and management of liver fibrosis.Hepatitis Monthly 12/2014; 14(12):e23264. DOI:10.5812/hepatmon.23264 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is normally present in the blood of infected patients; however, it can also be present in some other body fluids. Therefore, in this study, a concurrent presence of HCV-RNA was investigated in oral fluid and urine of 80 Pakistani chronic HCV patients. HCV-RNA was detected in 31 (38.8%) oral fluid and 10 (12.5%) urine samples using RT-PCR in all 80 of the patients whose sera tested positive for HCV-RNA. From this study, it is concluded that, in addition to the blood, HCV RNA can also be found in oral secretions as well as urine of chronic HCV patients.Archives of Virology 01/2009; · 2.28 Impact Factor