To search for a possible source of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in saliva, the presence and shedding patterns of HCV in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva of HCV viremic patients were assessed based on clinical, biochemical, histological, virological, and oral health parameters.
Saliva and GCF samples of 50 HCV viremic patients were collected to detect HCV RNA by a modified commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Clinical oral examination was performed and periodontal status at the collection sites was monitored. The results were correlated to specified parameters.
HCV RNA was detected in 59% (29/49) of the GCF specimens and in 35% (17/48) of the saliva specimens. In saliva specimens, HCV RNA was detected only in cases which also had detectable HCV RNA in the GCF samples (P=0.00002) and was significantly related to the presence of blood in saliva (P=0.03). Higher, but not significant, values of oral clinical parameters at the sites of fluid collection were found in GCF specimens harboring HCV RNA. In GCF specimens with no blood detected, HCV RNA was more often present in cases with higher plasma viral load (P=0.05).
The results suggest that besides blood, the other most probable source of HCV in saliva is GCF. Unknown endogenous HCV inhibitory mechanisms in the oral cavity may explain the discrepancies in HCV appearance between saliva and GCF. The results provide a biologic basis for further investigation of the role of HCV in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.
"However, HCV RNA has been measured in the saliva of infected individuals independent of mucosal lesions and periodontal disease (Liou et al. 1992, Fabris et al. 1999, Hermida et al. 2002, Lins et al. 2005). Additionally, HCV could enter the saliva via peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (Roy et al. 1998, Fabris et al. 1999, Maticic et al. 2001); however, the presence of HCV RNA in PBMCs and saliva have not been closely correlated (Young et al. 1993). The detection of HCV RNA in saliva and the existence of a correlation between the viral load in saliva and other compartments have been demonstrated in previous studies (Mariette et al. 1995, Hermida et al. 2002, Eirea et al. 2005, Lins et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006, Farias et al. 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be detected in blood and other bodily fluids, such as saliva, semen and gastric juices. The aim of this study was to compare the HCV viral loads in the serum and saliva of infected patients. Twenty-nine patients with detectable HCV RNA in their serum and saliva were included in this study. The HCV viral loads were determined through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. The median viral RNA levels were 5.78 log10 copies in the serum and 3.32 log10 copies in the saliva. We observed that the salivary HCV viral load was significantly lower than the viral load in the serum. Further studies are required to understand the role of saliva in the diagnosis, management and potential transmission of HCV.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 08/2012; 107(5):680-3. DOI:10.1590/S0074-02762012000500016 · 1.59 Impact Factor
"increased risk of HCV transmission to exposed individuals [Chen et al., 1995; Piazza et al., 1995]. Some studies found an association between HCV infection and sialadenitis [Haddad et al., 1992; Jorgensen et al., 1996]; however, the correlation between periodontal disease and HCV in saliva is not well established [Maticic et al., 2001]. A number of epidemiological studies report an association between HCV in the saliva of patients with oral lichen planus [Bagan et al., 1998; Nagao et al., 1995], although this is not always the case [Tucker and Coulson, 1999]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C is a worldwide public health problem and its transmission is clearly associated with the parenteral route, however, the virus has also been isolated from other body fluids. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA has been detected in saliva, yet the relationship between HCV and oral pathology is not clearly understood. Therefore, an investigation on HCV-RNA in saliva and its correlation with oral pathology was undertaken. Saliva and blood samples were collected from 50 anti-HCV positive patients and from 25 patients with non-HCV chronic liver disease. HCV-RNA was detected in all of the saliva samples from the HCV positive group. None of the saliva or serum samples from the non-HCV group were positive for HCV-RNA. The patients were examined for dental and oral health (dentate, partially dentate, edentulous, evidence of gum disease, or mucosal lesions); however, no correlation was found between HCV-RNA in saliva, oral health, and viral load. These results suggest that HCV-RNA presence in saliva is independent of the viral load and the oral pathology of HCV positive individuals.
Journal of Medical Virology 11/2005; 77(2):216-20. DOI:10.1002/jmv.20438 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A systematic review of the main infectious pathogens potentially transmissible to health care professionals during odontostomatologic procedures is carried out, with special attention focused on parenteral exposure in the surgical, dental, and stomatological environment. Epidemiological issues and specific risk factors are treated systematically, together with all available, recommended chemoprophylactic and immunological prophylactic strategies.
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