The 30-second effect: an experiment revealing the impact of television commercials on food preferences of preschoolers.

Stanford Center for Research in Disease Prevention, Palo Alto, Calif., USA.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association (Impact Factor: 3.92). 01/2001; 101(1):42-6.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To examine whether televised food commercials influence preschool children's food preferences.
In this randomized, controlled trial, preschool children viewed a videotape of a popular children's cartoon either with or without embedded commercials. Children were then asked to identify their preferences from pairs of similar products, one of which was advertised in the videotape with embedded commercials. Preschoolers' parents were interviewed to determine children's demographic characteristics and media use patterns.
Forty-six 2- to 6-year-olds from a Head Start program in northern California.
For demographic and media use characteristics, univariate data were examined and Student t and chi 2 tests were used to test for differences between the control and treatment groups. We calculated the Cochran Q statistic to assess whether the proportion of those choosing advertised food items was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group.
Children exposed to the videotape with embedded commercials were significantly more likely to choose the advertised items than children who saw the same videotape without commercials (Qdiff = 8.13, df = 1, P < .01).
Even brief exposures to televised food commercials can influence preschool children's food preferences. Nutritionists and health educators should advise parents to limit their preschooler's exposure to television advertisements. Furthermore, advocates should raise the public policy issue of advertising and young children, especially given the recent epidemic of childhood obesity and the ever-changing media environment.

1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evidence from laboratory and field studies indicates that large portions lead to greater food and energy intake relative to small portions. However, most children and adults demonstrate limited abilities to estimate and control the amounts of food they serve and consume. Five potential environmental strategies appear promising for improving portion control in children: (1) using tall, thin, and small volume glasses and mugs, (2) using smaller diameter and volume plates, bowls and serving utensils, (3) using plates with rims, (4) reducing total television and other screen watching and (5) reducing or eliminating eating while watching television and/or other screens. Further experimental research in real world settings is needed to test these interventions as strategies for portion control and their roles in prevention and treatment of obesity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Appetite 12/2014; 88. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2014.12.001 · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Associations of inadequate sleep with numerous health outcomes among youth necessitate identifying its modifiable determinants. Television (TV) has been associated with sleep curtailment, but little is known about small screens (eg, smartphones), which can be used in bed and emit notifications. Therefore, we examined associations of different screens in sleep environments with sleep duration and perceived insufficient rest or sleep. Participants included 2048 fourth- and seventh-graders participating in the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study in 2012 to 2013. Using linear and log binomial regression, we examined cross-sectional associations of small screens and TVs in sleep environments and screen time with weekday sleep duration and perceived insufficient rest or sleep in the past week. Children who slept near a small screen (compared with never) reported 20.6 fewer minutes of sleep (95% confidence interval [CI], -29.7 to -11.4) and had a higher prevalence of perceived insufficient rest or sleep (prevalence ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.60). Children who slept in a room with a TV (compared with no TV) reported 18.0 fewer minutes of sleep (95% CI, -27.9 to -8.1). TV or DVD viewing and video or computer game playing were associated with both sleep outcomes (P < .01). Some associations were stronger among Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and older children (P < .05 for heterogeneity). Sleeping near a small screen, sleeping with a TV in the room, and more screen time were associated with shorter sleep durations. Presence of a small screen, but not a TV, in the sleep environment and screen time were associated with perceived insufficient rest or sleep. These findings caution against unrestricted screen access in children's bedrooms. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
    Pediatrics 01/2015; 135(2). DOI:10.1542/peds.2014-2306 · 5.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introducción La tensión arterial elevada y los precursores de enfermedad cardiovascular, pueden iniciarse en la infancia y mantenerse hasta la adultez. Estos precursores ocurren frecuentemente en conglomerado. Objetivos Analizar la conglomeración de precursores de tensión arterial alta en adolescentes y determinar la asociación de la frecuencia acumulada de estos con la tensión arterial elevada. Métodos Estudio transversal en una muestra de 546 escolares de 11 a 18 años de la ciudad de Montería. Se tomaron medidas de tensión arterial, índice de masa corporal, perímetro abdominal, capacidad cardiorrespiratoria, niveles de actividad física y comportamientos sedentarios. Las asociaciones entre tensión arterial elevada y frecuencia acumulada de precursores fueron exploradas con modelos de regresión logística. Resultados La combinación de precursores más frecuente fue la presencia de dos precursores, inactividad física y tiempo excesivo de televisión (30,3%). Le siguen la aparición simultánea de tres precursores, baja capacidad cardiorrespiratoria, inactividad física y tiempo excesivo de televisión (18,3%). Aquellos adolescentes con dos o más precursores presentaron cifras de tensión arterial significativamente más altas en comparación con aquellos en quienes se encontró una acumulación menor de precursores. La tensión arterial elevada se asocia de manera significativa con la acumulación de precursores. Conclusión La conglomeración de dos o más precursores se asoció de manera significativa con la tensión arterial elevada, hallazgos que indican que se requieren intervenciones para reducir la presencia y acumulación de los precursores estudiados y así prevenir la adquisición de cifras de tensión arterial elevada en los adolescentes de Montería.
    Revista Colombiana de Cardiologia 12/2014; 21(5):340-47. DOI:10.1016/j.rccar.2014.05.009