Novel missense mutations outside the allosteric domain of glutamate dehydrogenase are prevalent in European patients with the congenital hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome.
ABSTRACT The hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS) has been shown to result from 'gain-of-function' mutations of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GlDH) gene, GLUD1. In the original report, all mutations were found in a narrow range of 27 base pairs within exons 11 and 12 which predicted an effect on the presumed allosteric domain of the enzyme and all these mutations were associated by a diminished inhibitory effect of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) on GlDH activity. We have investigated 14 patients from seven European families with mild hyperinsulinism. In four families, more than one member was affected. In eight cases hyperammonemia was documented, and eight cases had signs of significant leucine sensitivity. In one of the families, a novel heterozygous missense mutation in exon 6 [c.833C>T (R221C)] was detected, and in all other cases from six unrelated families the novel heterozygous missense mutation c.978G>A (R269H) was found in exon 7. When GIDH activity was measured in lymphocytes isolated from affected patients, both mutations were shown to result in a normal basal activity but a diminished sensitivity to GTP. It is the first time that this effect is reported for mutations located in the presumed catalytic site and outside the GTP allosteric domain of the enzyme. The observation of the high prevalence of the exon 7 mutation both in familial and sporadic cases of HHS suggests a mutation hot spot and justifies a mutation screening for this novel mutation by mismatch PCR-based restriction enzyme digestion in patients with hyperinsulinism.
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ABSTRACT: ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels are inhibited by intracellular ATP and activated by ADP. Nutrient oxidation in beta-cells leads to a rise in [ATP]-to-[ADP] ratios, which in turn leads to reduced K(ATP) channel activity, depolarization, voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel activation, Ca(2+) entry, and exocytosis. Persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (HI) is a genetic disorder characterized by dysregulated insulin secretion and, although rare, causes severe mental retardation and epilepsy if left untreated. The last five or six years have seen rapid advance in understanding the molecular basis of K(ATP) channel activity and the molecular genetics of HI. In the majority of cases for which a genotype has been uncovered, causal HI mutations are found in one or the other of the two genes, SUR1 and Kir6.2, that encode the K(ATP) channel. This article will review studies that have defined the link between channel activity and defective insulin release and will consider implications for future understanding of the mechanisms of control of insulin secretion in normal and diseased states.AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 09/2002; 283(2):E207-16. · 4.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Congenital hyperinsulinism and hyperammonaemia (CHH) is caused by dysregulation of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). We characterised the GDH gene in two Japanese patients with CHH. Patient 1 showed late-onset and mild hypoglycaemic episodes and mild hyperammonaemia, compared with patient 2. In GDH activity of lymphoblasts, patient 1 showed twofold higher basal GDH activity than control subjects and mild insensitivity for GTP inhibition. Patient 2 showed severe insensitivity for GTP inhibition, and similar allosteric stimulation by ADP in the controls. Genetic studies identified heterozygous and de novo L413V and G446D mutations in patients 1 and 2, respectively. COS cell expression study confirmed that both mutations were disease-causing gene. The insensitivity for GTP inhibition in L413V and G446D was emphasised in COS cell expression system as a result of the dosage effect of mutant GDH gene. L413V showed less impairment of GDH than G446D based on biochemical and genetic results, which was consistent with the clinical phenotype. Based on the structure of bovine GDH, G446D was located in GTP binding site of pivot helix and its surroundings, while L413V was located in alpha-helix of antenna-like structure. These different locations of mutations gave different effects on GDH enzyme. The antenna-like structure plays an important role in GDH activity.European Journal of HumanGenetics 01/2002; 9(12):931-7. · 4.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Two cDNAs, encoding the stress-inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) and the constitutively expressed 70-kDa heat shock cognate protein (Hsc70), were isolated from grass carp. The Hsp70 and Hsc70 cDNAs were 2250 bp and 2449 bp in length and contained 1932 bp and 1953 bp open reading frames, respectively. Tissue distribution results showed that Hsp70/Hsc70 was highly expressed in gill, kidney, head kidney and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Using grass carp PBLs as a cell model, effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the mRNA and protein levels of Hsp70/Hsc70 were examined. In this case, LPS increased the mRNA expression of Hsp70 in a time- and dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on Hsc70 mRNA expression. In agreement with this, LPS elevated the intracellular Hsp70 markedly, but not the Hsc70 protein levels in parallel experiments. Furthermore, Hsp70 protein was also detected in culture medium. Moreover, inhibition of LPS on Hsp70 release in a time-dependent manner was observed, indicating that there may be a dynamic balance between Hsp70 stores and Hsp70 release in grass carp PBLs following exposure to LPS. Taken together, these results not only shed new insights into the different regulations of LPS on Hsp70/Hsc70 gene expression, protein synthesis and release, but also provide a basis for further study on the functional role of Hsp70 in fish immune response.Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology 03/2011; 159(2):109-14. · 1.61 Impact Factor