Reasons for modification and discontinuation of antiretrovirals: results from a single treatment centre.
ABSTRACT To describe the reasons for, and factors associated with, modification and discontinuation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens at a single clinic.
A total of 556 patients who started HAART at the Royal Free Hospital were included in analyses. Modification was defined as stopping or switching any antiretrovirals in the regimen, whereas discontinuation was defined as the simultaneous stopping of all antiretrovirals included in the initial regimen. Reasons were classified as immunological/virological failure (IVF) and toxicities and patient choice/poor compliance (TPC).
The median CD4 count at starting HAART was 171 x 10(6) cells/l and viral load 5.07 log copies/ml. During a median follow-up of 14.2 months, 247 patients (44.4%) modified their HAART regimen, 72 due to IVF (29.1%) and 159 due to TPC (64.4%) and a total of 148 patients (26.6%) discontinued HAART. Older patients were less likely to modify HAART [relative hazard (RH), 0.73 per 10 years; P = 0.0008], as were previously treatment-naive patients (RH, 0.65; P = 0.0050), those in a clinical trial (RH, 0.64; P = 0.027) and those who started nelfinavir (RH, 0.57; P = 0.035). Patients who started with four or more drugs (RH, 2.21, P < 0.0001), who included ritonavir in the initial regimen (RH, 1.41; P = 0.035) or who had higher viral loads during follow-up (RH per log increase, 1.51; P < 0.0001) were more likely to modify HAART.
There was a high rate of modification and discontinuation of HAART regimens in the first 12 months, particularly due to toxicities, patient choice or poor compliance.
Article: Rates and reasons for early change of first HAART in HIV-1-infected patients in 7 sites throughout the Caribbean and Latin America.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: HAART rollout in Latin America and the Caribbean has increased from approximately 210,000 in 2003 to 390,000 patients in 2007, covering 62% (51%-70%) of eligible patients, with considerable variation among countries. No multi-cohort study has examined rates of and reasons for change of initial HAART in this region. Antiretroviral-naïve patients >or= 18 years who started HAART between 1996 and 2007 and had at least one follow-up visit from sites in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico and Peru were included. Time from HAART initiation to change (stopping or switching any antiretrovirals) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier techniques. Cox proportional hazards modeled the associations between change and demographics, initial regimen, baseline CD4 count, and clinical stage. Of 5026 HIV-infected patients, 35% were female, median age at HAART initiation was 37 years (interquartile range [IQR], 31-44), and median CD4 count was 105 cells/uL (IQR, 38-200). Estimated probabilities of changing within 3 months and one year of HAART initiation were 16% (95% confidence interval (CI) 15-17%) and 28% (95% CI 27-29%), respectively. Efavirenz-based regimens and no clinical AIDS at HAART initiation were associated with lower risk of change (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.6) and 2.1 (95% CI 1.7-2.5) comparing neverapine-based regimens and other regimens to efavirenz, respectively; HR = 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.5) for clinical AIDS at HAART initiation). The primary reason for change among HAART initiators were adverse events (14%), death (5.7%) and failure (1.3%) with specific toxicities varying among sites. After change, most patients remained in first line regimens. Adverse events were the leading cause for changing initial HAART. Predictors for change due to any reason were AIDS at baseline and the use of a non-efavirenz containing regimen. Differences between participant sites were observed and require further investigation.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(6):e10490. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Women experience higher rates of adverse events during hepatitis C virus therapy in HIV infection: a meta-analysis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In HIV/ hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection, adverse events (AEs) during HCV therapy account for 12%-39% of treatment discontinuations. It is unknown whether sex influences complications. Meta-analysis to study the effect of sex and other predictors of AEs in 3 randomized trials, ACTG 5071, APRICOT, and ANRSHCO2-RIBAVIC of Interferon (IFN) and Pegylated IFN (PEG), both with and without Ribavirin, in HIV/HCV coinfection. Primary endpoints were AEs requiring treatment discontinuation (AETD) or first dose modification (AEDM). Multi-covariate stratified logistic regression was used to study predictors and assess interactions with sex. Twenty-one percent of 1376 subjects were women; 61% had undetectable HIV RNA; 14% were antiretroviral (ARV) therapy naive at entry; median CD4 was 485 cells per cubicmillimeter. Seventeen percent had an AETD and 50% AEDM; women had more AETD than men (24% vs. 16% P = 0.003) and AEDM (61% vs. 48% P < 0.0001). AETD and AEDM occurred earlier in women; but the types of AETD and AEDM were similar between sexes. Seventy-four percent of AETDs and 49% of AEDMs involved constitutional AEs; 18% of AETD depression; and 26% of AEDM neutropenia. We identified interactions with sex and body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.04, continuous) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (P = 0.03); more AETDs were seen in men with lower BMI (P = 0.01) and in women on nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (P = 0.009). More AEDMs were seen with PEG [odds ratio (OR) = 2.07]; older age (OR = 1.48 per 10 years); decreasing BMI (OR = 1.04 per kg/m); HCV genotype 1, 4 (OR = 1.31); Ishak 5, 6 (OR = 1.42); decreasing Hgb (OR = 1.23 per g/dL); and decreasing absolute neutrophil count (1.04 per 500 cells/mm). Interactions between sex and ARV-naive status (P = 0.001) and zidovudine (P = 0.001) were identified: There were more AEDMs in ARV-naive women (P = 0.06) and ARV-experienced men (P = 0.001) and higher AEDMs in women with zidovudine (P = 0.0002). Although there was no difference in type of AE, AETD and AEDM were more frequent and occurred earlier in women. In women, ARV regimen may be an important predictor of AETDs during HCV therapy and should be explored as a predictor of AEs in HIV/HCV coinfection trials.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 10/2010; 55(2):170-5. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To estimate the percentage of adherence to highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Spanish observational studies and to identify the variables associated with adherence. Seven electronic databases were used to locate the studies. Six inclusion criteria were established. Two coders codified the variables independently. Intercoder reliability was calculated. Publication bias was analyzed through the Begg, Egger and Trim and Fill tests. Homogeneity was evaluated using the Q test and the l² index. A random effects model was assumed to estimate both the overall percentage of adherence and to explain heterogeneity. This meta-analysis included 23 observational studies, yielding a total of 34 adherence estimates. The sample was composed of 9,931 HIV-positive individuals (72% men) older than 18 years under treatment with HAART. The percentage of patients adhering to an intake of >90% of the prescribed antiretroviral drugs was 55%. Wide heterogeneity was detected (I² =91.20; 95%CI: 88.75-93.13). Adherence was mainly measured using a single strategy (47.8%), the most widely used being self-report (48.7%). In the univariate analysis, the following factors were significant: infection stages A (β=0.68, p <0.001) and B (β=-0.56, p <0.01), viral loads >200 copies/ml (β=-0.41, p <0.05) and <200 (β=0.39, p <0.05), and university education (β=-0.66, p<0.05). The overall percentage of adherence was 55%, although this value may be an overestimate. Adherence was associated with infection stage A and with a viral load of <200 copies/ml.Gaceta Sanitaria 05/2011; 25(4):282-9. · 1.33 Impact Factor