Reasons for modification and discontinuation of antiretrovirals: results from a single treatment centre
ABSTRACT To describe the reasons for, and factors associated with, modification and discontinuation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens at a single clinic.
A total of 556 patients who started HAART at the Royal Free Hospital were included in analyses. Modification was defined as stopping or switching any antiretrovirals in the regimen, whereas discontinuation was defined as the simultaneous stopping of all antiretrovirals included in the initial regimen. Reasons were classified as immunological/virological failure (IVF) and toxicities and patient choice/poor compliance (TPC).
The median CD4 count at starting HAART was 171 x 10(6) cells/l and viral load 5.07 log copies/ml. During a median follow-up of 14.2 months, 247 patients (44.4%) modified their HAART regimen, 72 due to IVF (29.1%) and 159 due to TPC (64.4%) and a total of 148 patients (26.6%) discontinued HAART. Older patients were less likely to modify HAART [relative hazard (RH), 0.73 per 10 years; P = 0.0008], as were previously treatment-naive patients (RH, 0.65; P = 0.0050), those in a clinical trial (RH, 0.64; P = 0.027) and those who started nelfinavir (RH, 0.57; P = 0.035). Patients who started with four or more drugs (RH, 2.21, P < 0.0001), who included ritonavir in the initial regimen (RH, 1.41; P = 0.035) or who had higher viral loads during follow-up (RH per log increase, 1.51; P < 0.0001) were more likely to modify HAART.
There was a high rate of modification and discontinuation of HAART regimens in the first 12 months, particularly due to toxicities, patient choice or poor compliance.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Anne M Johnson, Jan 14, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced HIV morbidity and mortality worldwide but has many adverse effects. These adverse drug reactions (ADRs) lead to discontinuations, disease progression or treatment failure. We explored the types and risk factors for ADRs in a cohort starting ART in a teaching hospital in Accra, Ghana where the main regimens used were a combination of nucleotide and non nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors.01/2014; 18:25. DOI:10.11604/pamj.2014.18.25.3886
DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 02/2015; 23:13. DOI:10.1186/s40199-014-0074-5 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Substantial complexity has been introduced into treatment regimens for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Many drug-related problems (DRPs) are detected in these patients, such as low adherence, therapeutic inefficacy, and safety issues. We evaluated the impact of pharmacist interventions on CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, and DRPs in patients with HIV infection. Methods: In this 18-month prospective controlled study, 90 outpatients were selected by convenience sampling from the Hospital Dia–University of Campinas Teaching Hospital (Brazil). Forty-five patients comprised the pharmacist intervention group and 45 the control group; all patients had HIV infection with or without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pharmaceutical appointments were conducted based on the Pharmacotherapy Workup method, although DRPs and pharmacist intervention classifications were modified for applicability to institutional service limitations and research requirements. Pharmacist interventions were performed immediately after detection of DRPs. The main outcome measures were DRPs, CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, and HIV viral load. Results: After pharmacist intervention, DRPs decreased from 5.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] =4.1–6.2) to 4.2 (95% CI =3.3–5.1) per patient (P=0.043). A total of 122 pharmacist interventions were proposed, with an average of 2.7 interventions per patient. All the pharmacist interventions were accepted by physicians, and among patients, the interventions were well accepted during the appointments, but compliance with the interventions was not measured. A statistically significant increase in CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in the intervention group was found (260.7 cells/mm3 [95% CI =175.8–345.6] to 312.0 cells/mm3 [95% CI =23.5–40.6], P=0.015), which was not observed in the control group. There was no statistical difference between the groups regarding HIV viral load. Conclusion: This study suggests that pharmacist interventions in patients with HIV infection can cause an increase in CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and a decrease in DRPs, demonstrating the importance of an optimal pharmaceutical care plan.Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 08/2014; 2014(10):631—639. DOI:10.2147/TCRM.S61821 · 1.34 Impact Factor