Preparation of a pure autologous biodegradable fibrin matrix for tissue engineering

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Charité, Medical Faculty of the Humboldt University, Berlin.
Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing (Impact Factor: 1.73). 12/2000; 38(6):686-9. DOI: 10.1007/BF02344876
Source: PubMed


Parallel to the growing role of tissue engineering, the need for cell embedding materials, which allow cells to stabilise in a three-dimensional distribution, has increased. Although several substances have been tested, fibrin is thus far the only one that permits the clinical application of cultured tissue. To date, autologous fibrinogen has usually been polymerised with bovine thrombin, which can cause severe immunological side effects. The objective of this study was to explore the practicability of obtaining autologous thrombin from a single patient in an adequate concentration and amount. Fibrinogen was cryoprecipitated from 200 ml of freshly-frozen plasma. Thrombin was isolated from the supernatant through ion-exchange chromatography. The thrombin was first bound to Sephadex A-50 and then eluated using 2 ml of a salt buffer (2.0 M NaCl in 0.015 M trisodiumcitrate, pH 7.0). The activity of the thrombin (51 NIH x ml(-1) to 414 NIH x ml(-1) reached levels comparable to those in commercially available fibrin glues (4-500 NIH x ml(-1)). The study has shown that it is possible to obtain a sufficient amount of autologous thrombin from a single donor to create a fibrin matrix of high efficiency without the risk of immunological and infectious side effects.

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    • "As an alternative to collagen scaffolds, a number of groups have also researched the use of cell-impregnated fibrin gels to create vascular grafts. While most studies have been performed with isolated/processed components , a possible advantage of using fibrin is that fibrinogen and thrombin, the precursors to fibrin gel formation, can be readily obtained from a patient's own blood [Haisch et al., 2000]. Like collagen gel-based grafts, constructs created from fibrin-gels have a typically low mechanical strength. "
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    • "Based on this strategy the advantages of synthetic and natural polymers can be straightforwardly combined to provide a 3D cell arrangement mimicking the in vivo situation as closely as possible. Fibrin gel was selected as a model gel for the rabbit study because it is an FDAapproved material, has been used extensively in the clinical setting as a tissue adhesive [57] as well as a cell carrier in epidermal skin tissue engineering [44] and can also be obtained from a patients' own blood [27]. Favourable healing processes could potentially be promoted because a multiple material matrix facilitates the entrapment of soluble or immobilized factors within the gel phase while providing high and homogenous seeding efficiency and efficacy within the polymer construct [15] [40]. "
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