Preparation of a pure autologous biodegradable fibrin matrix for tissue engineering.
ABSTRACT Parallel to the growing role of tissue engineering, the need for cell embedding materials, which allow cells to stabilise in a three-dimensional distribution, has increased. Although several substances have been tested, fibrin is thus far the only one that permits the clinical application of cultured tissue. To date, autologous fibrinogen has usually been polymerised with bovine thrombin, which can cause severe immunological side effects. The objective of this study was to explore the practicability of obtaining autologous thrombin from a single patient in an adequate concentration and amount. Fibrinogen was cryoprecipitated from 200 ml of freshly-frozen plasma. Thrombin was isolated from the supernatant through ion-exchange chromatography. The thrombin was first bound to Sephadex A-50 and then eluated using 2 ml of a salt buffer (2.0 M NaCl in 0.015 M trisodiumcitrate, pH 7.0). The activity of the thrombin (51 NIH x ml(-1) to 414 NIH x ml(-1) reached levels comparable to those in commercially available fibrin glues (4-500 NIH x ml(-1)). The study has shown that it is possible to obtain a sufficient amount of autologous thrombin from a single donor to create a fibrin matrix of high efficiency without the risk of immunological and infectious side effects.
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ABSTRACT: Vascular occlusion remains the leading cause of death in Western countries, despite advances made in balloon angioplasty and conventional surgical intervention. Vascular surgery, such as CABG surgery, arteriovenous shunts, and the treatment of congenital anomalies of the coronary artery and pulmonary tracts, requires biologically responsive vascular substitutes. Autografts, particularly saphenous vein and internal mammary artery, are the gold-standard grafts used to treat vascular occlusions. Prosthetic grafts have been developed as alternatives to autografts, but their low patency owing to short-term and intermediate-term thrombosis still limits their clinical application. Advances in vascular tissue engineering technology-such as self-assembling cell sheets, as well as scaffold-guided and decellularized-matrix approaches-promise to produce responsive, living conduits with properties similar to those of native tissue. Over the past decade, vascular tissue engineering has become one of the fastest-growing areas of research, and is now showing some success in the clinic.Nature Reviews Cardiology 05/2013; · 10.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biodegradable materials have been used as wound closure materials. It is important for these materials to enhance wound healing when the wound is vulnerable, and maintain wound closure until the wound is heal. This article studies the degradation process of bioresorbable magnesium micro-clips for wound closure in voice/laryngeal microsurgery. A novel computational approach is proposed to model degradation of the biodegradable micro-clips. The degradation process that considers both material and geometry of the device as well as its deployment is modeled as an energy minimization problem that is iteratively solved using active contour and incremental finite element methods. Strain energy of the micro-clip during degradation is calculated with the stretching and bending functions in the active contour formulation. The degradation rate is computed from strain energy using a transformation formulation. By relating strain energy to material degradation, the degradation rates and geometries of the micro-clip during degradation can be represented using a simulated degradation map. Computer simulation of the degradation of the micro-clip presented in the study is validated by in vivo and in vitro experiments. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 01/2014; · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts have been developed as a promising alternative to native veins or arteries for replacement therapy. However, there is still a crucial need to improve the current approaches to render the tissue-engineered blood vessels more favorable for clinical applications. A completely biological blood vessel (3-mm inner diameter) was constructed by culturing a 50:50 mixture of bovine smooth muscle cells with neonatal human dermal fibroblasts in fibrin gels. After 30 days of culture under pulsatile stretching, the engineered blood vessels demonstrated an average burst pressure of 913.3 ± 150.1 mmHg (n=6), a suture retention (53.3 ± 15.4g) that is suitable for implantation, and a compliance (3.1 ± 2.5 %/100 mmHg) that is comparable to native vessels. These engineered grafts contained circumferentially aligned collagen fibers, microfibrils and elastic fibers, and differentiated smooth muscle cells, mimicking a native artery. These promising mechanical and biochemical properties were achieved in a very short culture time of 30 days, suggesting the potential of co-culturing of smooth muscle cells with fibroblasts in fibrin gels to generate functional small-diameter vascular grafts for vascular reconstruction surgery.Tissue Engineering Part A 12/2013; · 4.64 Impact Factor