Alternative right ventricular pacing sites--where are we going?

Europace (Impact Factor: 3.67). 05/2000; 2(2):93-8. DOI: 10.1053/eupc.2000.0081
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: The main goal of this article was to review animal experimental work on the effect of asynchronous activation on ventricular pump function. During normal sinus rhythm and atrial pacing, the Purkinje system contributes significantly to the rapid electrical activation of the ventricles. In contrast, during ventricular pacing the impulse is almost exclusively conducted through the normal myocardium. As a consequence, electrical activation of the ventricles becomes asynchronous and has an abnormal sequence. The abnormal impulse conduction causes considerable disturbances to occur in regional systolic fiber shortening, mechanical work, blood flow, and oxygen consumption; low values occurring in early activated regions and values above normal being present in late activated regions. Many animal studies have now shown that the abnormal electrical activation, induced by ventricular pacing, leads to a depression of systolic and diastolic LV function. Pacing at the right ventricular apex (the conventional pacing site) reduces LV function more than pacing at the high ventricular septum or at LV sites. In canine hearts with experimental LBBB, LV pacing significantly improves LV pump function. Differences in LV pump function between (combinations of) pacing sites are poorly correlated with QRS duration. Therefore, the cause of the depression of LV function during abnormal electrical activation appears to be a combination of the asynchrony and the sequence of activation. These experimental findings justify continuing attention for optimizing the site(s) of ventricular pacing in patients with normal and abnormal ventricular impulse conduction.
    Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 05/2002; 25(4 Pt 1):484-98. DOI:10.1046/j.1460-9592.2002.00484.x · 1.13 Impact Factor
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