A risk factor for female fertility and pregnancy: celiac disease.
ABSTRACT Celiac disease is a genetically-based intolerance to gluten. In the past, celiac disease has been considered a rare disease of infancy characterized by chronic diarrhea and delayed growth. Besides the overt enteropathy, there are many other forms which appear later in life; target organs are not limited to the gut, but include liver, thyroid, skin and reproductive tract. It is now recognized that celiac disease is a relatively frequent disorder; the overall prevalence is at least 1:300 in Western Europe. Celiac disease may impair the reproductive life of affected women, eliciting delayed puberty, infertility, amenorrhea and precocious menopause. Clinical and epidemiological studies show that female patients with celiac disease are at higher risk of spontaneous abortions, low birth weight of the newborn and reduced duration of lactation. No adequate studies are available on the rate of birth defects in the progeny of affected women; however, celiac disease induces malabsorption and deficiency of factors essential for organogenesis, e.g. iron, folic acid and vitamin K. The overall evidence suggests that celiac disease patients can be a group particularly susceptible to reproductive toxicants; however, the pathogenesis of celiac disease-related reproductive disorders still awaits clarification. At present, like the other pathologies associated with celiac disease, the possible prevention or treatment of reproductive effects can only be achieved through a life-long maintenance of a gluten-free diet.
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ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disease triggered by dietary gluten, is a multi-systemic disorder that primarily results in mucosal damage of the small intestine. Reproductive disorders and pregnancy complications have been associated with CD. Conflicting results have been published concerning CD and the risk of impaired fetal growth with reduced birthweight. The aim of our multicentric, perspective, case-control study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed CD in mothers of small for gestational age (SGA) newborns in two regions of Italy. The study included 480 mothers: group A consisted of 284 SGA newborns' mothers and group B consisted of 196 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborns' mothers. Tissue transglutaminase type 2 antibodies (TG2) IgA and IgG were measured in blood samples. We diagnosed two new cases of CD in asymptomatic mothers. It may be appropriate to include the TG2 to the panel of prenatal blood test.Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 04/2012; · 1.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is a need for a new approach to managing women with primary ovarian insufficiency. This condition is a serious chronic disease that may have far reaching effects on physical and emotional health. An integrative and collaborative approach to management works best. To maintain wellness, most women with primary ovarian insufficiency need to reassess their primary source of meaning and purpose in life and how this diagnosis may have threatened that part of who they are. They also need assessment with regard to bone health, thyroid and adrenal function, determination of FMR1 premutation and karyotype status, and ongoing estradiol-progestin hormone replacement.Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 12/2012; 39(4):567-86. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Evidence of the prevalence of celiac disease comes from serological screening studies. These have revealed that celiac disease is common, occurring in about 1 % of the population worldwide. There are some countries with higher prevalence rates such as Finland and others with lower rates, for example Germany. The disease is found in most continents and appears to be increasing. Most people with the disease are not currently diagnosed though women are diagnosed more frequently than men. The mode of presentation has changed both in children and adults with diarrhea and a malabsorption syndrome becoming less common. Abdominal pain and growth issues are major modes of presentation in children, while anemia, osteoporosis, and recognition at endoscopy performed for GERD are seen as modes of presentation in adults. Screening of at risk groups is a major mode of presentation for both adults and children.Seminars in Immunopathology 04/2012; 34(4):473-8. · 5.38 Impact Factor