Incidence and late prognosis of Cushing's syndrome: A population-based study
ABSTRACT The main purpose was to assess the incidence and late outcome of Cushing's syndrome, particularly in Cushing's disease. Information for all patients diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome during an 11-yr period in Denmark was retrieved. The incidence was 1.2-1.7/million.yr (Cushing's disease), 0.6/million.yr (adrenal adenoma) and 0.2/million.yr (adrenal carcinoma). Other types of Cushing's syndrome were rare. In 139 patients with nonmalignant disease, 11.1% had died during follow-up (median, 8.1 yr; range, 3.1-14.0), yielding a standard mortality ratio (SMR) of 3.68 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.34-5.33]. The SMR was partly attributable to an increased mortality within the first year after diagnosis. Eight patients died before treatment could be undertaken. The prognosis in patients with malignant disease was very poor. Patients in whom more than 5 yr had elapsed since initial surgery were studied separately, including a questionnaire on their perceived quality of health. In 45 patients with Cushing's disease who had been cured through transsphenoidal neurosurgery, only 1 had died (SMR, 0.31; CI, 0.01-1.72) compared with 6 of 20 patients with persistent hypercortisolism after initial neurosurgery (SMR, 5.06; CI, 1.86-11.0). In patients with adrenal adenoma, SMR was 3.95 (CI, 0.81-11.5). The perceived quality of health was significantly impaired only in patients with Cushing's disease and appeared independent of disease control or presence of hypopituitarism. It is concluded that 1) Cushing's syndrome is rare and is associated with increased mortality, in patients with no concurrent malignancy also; 2) the excess mortality was mainly observed during the first year of disease; and 3) the impaired quality of health in long-term survivors of Cushing's disease is not fully explained.
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ABSTRACT: Background Hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) is associated with an increased prevalence of hypertension. This study investigated the left ventricular function using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) in small breed dogs affected with spontaneous HAC.Age-matched healthy controls (n¿=¿9), dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH, n¿=¿10), and dogs with adrenal-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (ADH, n¿=¿9) were included in this study. Conventional echocardiography, global longitudinal and circumferential strain, and strain rate were assessed.ResultsOn group-wise comparison, left ventricular free wall (LVFWd) and interventricular septal thickness in diastole (IVSd) were thickest in the ADH group, followed by the PDH and controls (P¿=¿0.014 and P¿=¿0.001, respectively). Neither LVFWd nor IVSd was correlated with systemic blood pressure (P¿=¿0.238 and P¿=¿0.113, respectively). The values of all variables derived from the global strain and strain rate in longitudinal and circumferential directions followed the same pattern: highest in the controls, followed by PDH and then ADH (all P¿<¿0.05, respectively). On multiple regression analyses, global longitudinal strain, global longitudinal strain rate in systole and early diastole, and global circumferential strain all decreased linearly with increased IVSd (all P¿<¿0.05).Conclusions Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was more prevalent in the HAC group compared to the control group. Association between hypertension and development of LVH was not identified. Decreased global longitudinal and circumferential strains were associated with increased IVSd. 2D-STE revealed significant decreases in systolic functions that were undetected using conventional echocardiography in the ADH and PDH groups.Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 12/2014; 56(1):951. DOI:10.1186/s13028-014-0088-5 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenomas give rise to physical and psychological symptoms, which may persist after biochemical cure. Growing attention has been paid to quality of life (QoL) in these patients. We aimed to systematically analyze QoL assessment methods and QoL outcome in these patients. We conducted a systematic literature search up to January 2014 in PubMed, Web of Knowledge, PsycInfo and EMBASE. 102 papers assessing QoL in patients with a pituitary adenoma were included. In clinical (original) studies in which QoL was the primary outcome parameter (n = 54), 19 studies combined a generic questionnaire with a disease-specific questionnaire. QoL was found to be impaired in patients with active disease relative to controls, and generally improved during biochemical cure. However, no normalization occurred, with patients with remitted Cushing's disease demonstrating the smallest improvement. Somatic factors (e.g., hypopituitarism, sleep characteristics), psychological factors (illness perceptions) and health care environment (rural vs. urban) were identified as influencing factors. Intervention studies (predominantly evaluating medical interventions) have been found to improve QoL. The growing number of studies assessing QoL generally described the negative impact of pituitary adenomas. QoL research in this patient group could be further elaborated by the development of disease-specific questionnaires for prolactinoma and non-functioning adenoma, consequent use of generic and disease-specific questionnaires and using a long-term (longitudinal) follow-up. Surgical and pharmacological interventions improve but not normalize QoL. We postulate that there might be margin for further improvement of QoL, for instance by using psychosocial interventions, in addition to optimal medical treatment.Pituitary 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11102-015-0636-7 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cushing's syndrome is associated with increased mortality, mainly due to cardiovascular complications, which are sustained by the common development of systemic arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrome, which partially persist after the disease remission. Cardiovascular diseases and hypertension associated with endogenous hypercortisolism reveal underexplored peculiarities. The use of exogenous corticosteroids also impacts on hypertension and cardiovascular system, especially after prolonged treatment. The mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension differ, whether glucocorticoid excess is acute or chronic, and the source endogenous or exogenous, introducing inconsistencies among published studies. The pleiotropic effects of glucocorticoids and the overlap of the several regulatory mechanisms controlling blood pressure suggest that a rigorous comparison of in-vivo and in-vitro studies is necessary to draw reliable conclusions. This review, developed during the first 'Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome' workshop held in Capri in 2012, evaluates the most important peculiarities of hypertension associated with CS, with a particular focus on its pathophysiology. A critical appraisal of most significant animal and human studies is compared with a systematic review of the few available clinical trials. A special attention is dedicated to the description of the clinical features and cardiovascular damage secondary to glucocorticoid excess. On the basis of the consensus reached during the workshop, a pathophysiology-oriented therapeutic algorithm has been developed and it could serve as a first attempt to rationalize the treatment of hypertension in Cushing's syndrome.Journal of Hypertension 11/2014; 33(1). DOI:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000415 · 4.22 Impact Factor