Outcomes of transcatheter balloon angioplasty of obstruction in the neo-aortic arch after the Norwood operation.
ABSTRACT Obstruction of the reconstructed aortic arch, or the neoaortic arch, is now known to be an important factor increasing mortality after the Norwood operation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Transcatheter balloon angioplasty has been shown to provide effective relief of both native aortic coarctation and obstructions of the aortic arch occurring subsequent to therapeutic intervention. We sought to determine the outcomes of balloon angioplasty used as an initial treatment for obstruction of the neoaortic arch occurring after the Norwood operation. We gathered the characteristics of 58 patients with such obstruction from 8 institutions, noting procedural factors and outcomes of initial balloon dilation. Obstruction occurred at a median interval of 4 months, with a range from 1.5 months to 6.3 years, after a Norwood operation. Ventricular dysfunction was present before dilation in 13 patients. Mean peak to peak systolic pressure gradients were acutely reduced from 31+/-20 mm Hg to 6+/-9 mmHg (p<0.001), with outcome subjectively judged to be successful in 89%. Three patients with pre-existing ventricular dysfunction died within 48 hours of dilation. There were 10 additional deaths during the period of follow-up, with Kaplan Meier estimates of survival after intervention of 87% at 1 month, 77% at 12 months, and 72% after 15 months. In addition, 9 patients required re-intervention during the period of follow-up, with Kaplan Meier estimates of freedom from re-intervention after dilation of 87% at 6 months, 78% at 12 months and 74% after 18 months. Although transcatheter dilation of neoaortic arch obstructions after Norwood operation is successful, there is a high risk of re-intervention and ongoing mortality in this subgroup of patients. Close follow-up is recommended.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether there are identifiable factors associated with increased risk for aortic arch reintervention in patients who have undergone balloon aortoplasty (BD) for aortic arch obstruction (COA) after the Norwood procedure (NP). BD has been shown to be an effective acute therapy for COA after the NP. However, recurrent obstruction requiring repeat intervention is not uncommon. All patients who underwent BD as the initial intervention for COA after the NP from to January 1993 to May 2009 were retrospectively analyzed (n = 116). The median age at initial BD was 4.5 months. The median follow-up period was 3.4 years. Procedures were considered acutely successful in 92% of patients, with a median gradient reduction overall from 24 to 3 mm Hg (p < 0.0001) and a COA diameter increase of 52% (p < 0.0001). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, freedom from reintervention was 69% at 1 year and 58% at 5 years, and freedom from reoperation was 82% at 1 year and 79% at 5 years. By Cox regression analysis, proximal arch obstruction, age <3 months at BD, moderate or greater ventricular dysfunction, moderate or greater atrioventricular valve regurgitation on pre-catheterization echocardiography, and higher post-BD coarctation gradient were associated with shorter freedom from reoperation. Despite a high acute success rate, a significant proportion of patients treated with BD for post-NP COA underwent reintervention during follow-up. The risk for arch reintervention is highest in patients with proximal arch obstruction, those age <3 months at the time of BD, and those with less successful acute results.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 08/2011; 58(8):868-76. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the recent era, no congenital heart defect has undergone a more dramatic change in diagnostic approach, management, and outcomes than hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). During this time, survival to the age of 5 years (including Fontan) has ranged from 50% to 69%, but current expectations are that 70% of newborns born today with HLHS may reach adulthood. Although the 3-stage treatment approach to HLHS is now well founded, there is significant variation among centers. In this white paper, we present the current state of the art in our understanding and treatment of HLHS during the stages of care: 1) pre-Stage I: fetal and neonatal assessment and management; 2) Stage I: perioperative care, interstage monitoring, and management strategies; 3) Stage II: surgeries; 4) Stage III: Fontan surgery; and 5) long-term follow-up. Issues surrounding the genetics of HLHS, developmental outcomes, and quality of life are addressed in addition to the many other considerations for caring for this group of complex patients.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 01/2012; 59(1 Suppl):S1-42. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Balloon angioplasty (BA) is effective in relieving neoaorta recoarctation (reCoa) after the Norwood procedure. However, recurrence is not uncommon and risk factors for success and recurrence require further elucidation. We report the results of BA for reCoa following the Norwood procedure. We examine acute results and risk factors associated with success and recurrence after BA. METHODS: Patients who underwent BA between November 2000 and June 2010 were studied. Factors for immediate success and recurrence after BA were determined using logistic regression. Recurrence-free survival was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier curve. RESULTS: Forty-seven angioplasties were performed in 39 patients. Mean age at catheterization was 5.0 ± 4.1 months. BA was successful in 40 angioplasties (85.1%). A higher preprocedure gradient across the coarctation (P = 0.04) and a higher ratio of balloon to descending aorta (P = 0.01) were associated with success. Six patients required redilation. Risk factors for recurrence included older age at Norwood (P = 0.02), younger age (P = 0.03), lower weight (P = 0.04) and smaller body surface area at balloon angioplasty (BA) (P = 0.04), and shorter duration between surgery and angioplasty (P = 0.03). Freedom from recurrence from the first catheterization was 82% after 6 months and 78% after 1 year. There were no neurologic sequelae or deaths. CONCLUSIONS: BA is effective acutely and long term with limited morbidity and mortality. Recurrence occurs usually within the first year. Delay in performing the initial angioplasty may be beneficial in reducing the risk of recurrence, but further study is needed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 03/2012; · 2.51 Impact Factor