Determination of the human salivary peptides histatins 1, 3, 5 and statherin by high-performance liquid chromatography and by diode-array detection
ABSTRACT A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with diode-array detection for the quantification of several human salivary peptides is described. Sample pretreatment consisted of the acidification of whole saliva by phosphate buffer. This treatment produced precipitation of mucins, alpha-amylases and other high-molecular-mass salivary proteins, simultaneous inhibition of intrinsic protease activities and reduction of sample viscosity. Direct HPLC analysis by diode-array detection of the resulting acidic sample allowed one to quantify histatin 1, histatin 3, histatin 5, statherin, as well as uric acid, in normal subjects. Moreover, the groups of peaks pertaining to proline-rich proteins and cystatins were tentatively identified. The method can be useful in assessing the concentration of salivary peptides from normal subjects and from patients suffering oral and/or periodontal diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Saliva is a glandular secretion that is vital in the maintenance of healthy oral tissues. In this review we outline the high abundance salivary proteins, summarise the status of the salivary proteome and peptidome, the genetic origin and recognised functions of these proteins, the diseases associated with salivary disorders, and the emerging saliva-derived peptide therapeutics. Different proteomic approaches have reported the identification of over 1,300 proteins in saliva. However there are fewer than 100 high abundance proteins, identified by multiple methods including, two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and HPLC combined with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the genes coding for the salivary proteins demonstrated a non-uniform chromosomal distribution with chromosome 4 having the largest proportion of genes expressed in salivary glands. Several diseases are associated with salivary disorders including Sjögren’s syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, dental caries and stress related disorders. Saliva as a diagnostic medium for various biochemical tests has provided a non-invasive and accessibility advantage over other more regularly tested body fluids such as blood and urine. To-date the emerging saliva-based therapeutics include artificial salivas and antimicrobial agents based on histatins and mucins.International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics 11/2007; 13(4):547-564. DOI:10.1007/s10989-007-9109-9 · 0.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dental caries is a complex disease, characterized by demineralization of tooth structure. With a protective role, several salivary phosphopeptides appear to be involved in remineralization processes, delaying the loss of tooth structure. In this work we have correlated peptide saliva composition with dental caries susceptibility through the analysis of saliva and hydroxyapatite-adsorbed salivary peptides samples. Saliva samples were obtained from two groups, a caries-free and a cariessusceptible group, and were analysed using HPLC-MS and a sequential extraction with 6 m of guanidine followed by tri fluoroacetate. Data analysis has allowed us to verify a strong correlation between large amounts phosphopeptides (PRP1/3, histatin 1 and statherin), and the absence of dental caries, which reinforces the importance of these peptides in the maintenance of tooth integrity. In addition, in the caries-susceptible group a high number of peptide fragments was observed, suggesting a high proteolytic activity.Biomedical Chromatography 05/2005; 19(3):214-22. DOI:10.1002/bmc.438 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Salivary peptides are involved in a wide range of functions constituting the first line of defence of oral cavity and precursors of dental pellicle formation. The presence of mucins in saliva makes difficult the analysis of the proteic content. This is due mainly to aggregation phenomenon between mucins and other high molecular weight glycoproteins and salivary proteins. Considering the importance of salivary peptides in biological functions, we have evaluated the influence of four different extraction methodologies on the separation and identification of these proteins by HPLC-MS. Based on their molecular weight, we identified a total of 22 peptides when extraction was performed using a solution of guanidine (6 m), compared with 14 peptides identified when saliva is acidified with TFA, which is an often used procedure. Our results also show the presence of mucin bind peptides, which include statherin, PRP1, PRP3, Histatin 1 and Histatin 5.Biomedical Chromatography 10/2004; 18(8):570-5. DOI:10.1002/bmc.358 · 1.66 Impact Factor