Determination of the human salivary peptides histatins 1, 3, 5 and statherin by high-performance liquid chromatography and by diode-array detection.
ABSTRACT A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with diode-array detection for the quantification of several human salivary peptides is described. Sample pretreatment consisted of the acidification of whole saliva by phosphate buffer. This treatment produced precipitation of mucins, alpha-amylases and other high-molecular-mass salivary proteins, simultaneous inhibition of intrinsic protease activities and reduction of sample viscosity. Direct HPLC analysis by diode-array detection of the resulting acidic sample allowed one to quantify histatin 1, histatin 3, histatin 5, statherin, as well as uric acid, in normal subjects. Moreover, the groups of peaks pertaining to proline-rich proteins and cystatins were tentatively identified. The method can be useful in assessing the concentration of salivary peptides from normal subjects and from patients suffering oral and/or periodontal diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Top-down mass spectrometry has been used to investigate structural diversity within some abundant salivary protein families. In this study, we report the identification of two isoforms of protein II-2 which differed in mass by less than 1 Da, the determination of a sequence for protein IB8a that was best satisfied by including a mutation and a covalent modification in the C-terminal part, and the assignment of a sequence of a previously unreported protein of mass 10433 Da. The final characterization of Peptide P-J was achieved, and the discovery of a truncated form of this peptide was reported. The first sequence assignment was done at low resolution using a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight instrument to quickly identify and characterize proteins, and data acquisition was switched to Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) for proteins that required additional sequence coverage and certainty of assignment. High-resolution and high mass accuracy mass spectrometry on a FTICR-mass spectrometry (MS) instrument combined with electron-capture dissociation (ECD) provided the most informative data sets, with the more frequent presence of "unique" ions that unambiguously define the primary structure. A mixture of predictable and unusual post-translational modifications in the protein sequence precluded the use of shotgun-annotated databases at this stage, requiring manual iterations of sequence refinement in many cases. This led us to propose guidelines for an iterative processing workflow of MS and MSMS data sets that allow researchers to completely assign the identity and the structure of a protein.Analytical Chemistry 04/2012; 84(10):4383-95. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Salivary host-defence peptides include defensins, histatins and cathelicidin. We have investigated the effects of these peptides on the microbial composition of dental plaques. Salivary consortia, established within hydroxyapatite disc models, were exposed during development to physiological levels of human neutrophil proteins (HNP) 1 and 2; human β defensins (hβD) 1, 2 and 3; histatins (His) 5 and 8; and cathelicidin (LL37). Effects on aggregation and microbial composition were determined using fluorescence microscopy; and differential culture with PCR-DGGE, respectively. LIVE/DEAD microscopic analysis indicated that HDPs decreased total bacterial viability, whilst β defensins, paired HNPs, His 5, His 8 and the HDPs combined inhibited bacterial aggregation. According to differential culture, all test HDPs (except His 5) significantly decreased the abundance of Gram-negative anaerobes and lactobacilli (except HNP 2, hβD 1, paired HNPs and His 5). Combined HNPs and paired hβD 1 and 3 inhibited streptococci, whereas HNP 1, hβD 1, hβD 3, His 5 and LL37 increased streptococcal numbers. According to cluster analyses of DGGE profiles, HDP-exposed plaques were compositionally distinct from undosed controls. Thus, whilst HDPs reportedly exhibit variable potency against oral bacteria in endpoint susceptibly tests, exposure of nascent plaques can markedly influence bacterial viability, composition and microbial aggregation.FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology 12/2011; 64(3):374-81. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Saliva is a glandular secretion that is vital in the maintenance of healthy oral tissues. In this review we outline the high abundance salivary proteins, summarise the status of the salivary proteome and peptidome, the genetic origin and recognised functions of these proteins, the diseases associated with salivary disorders, and the emerging saliva-derived peptide therapeutics. Different proteomic approaches have reported the identification of over 1,300 proteins in saliva. However there are fewer than 100 high abundance proteins, identified by multiple methods including, two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and HPLC combined with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the genes coding for the salivary proteins demonstrated a non-uniform chromosomal distribution with chromosome 4 having the largest proportion of genes expressed in salivary glands. Several diseases are associated with salivary disorders including Sjögren’s syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, dental caries and stress related disorders. Saliva as a diagnostic medium for various biochemical tests has provided a non-invasive and accessibility advantage over other more regularly tested body fluids such as blood and urine. To-date the emerging saliva-based therapeutics include artificial salivas and antimicrobial agents based on histatins and mucins.International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics 04/2012; 13(4):547-564. · 1.28 Impact Factor