Phenolic antioxidants from herbs and spices

Department of Food aind Nutrition, Faculty of Human Life Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi, Japan.
BioFactors (Impact Factor: 4.59). 02/2000; 13(1-4):141-6.
Source: PubMed


Spices and herbs are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants and thus play an important role in the chemoprevention of diseases resulting from lipid peroxidation. Our studies on spices and herbs have given us over a hundred compounds, known and new, having high antioxidant activity. From the Labiatae family, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare and O. majorana gave 26 active comopounds. Over 40 antioxidative compounds from Zingiber officinale, 26 compounds from Curcuma domestica = C. longa, C. xanthorrhiza and Z. cassumunar were determined, these belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. From the family Myrtaceae, 25 compounds from the berries of Pimenta dioica were determined and 3 carbazoles were isolated from Murraya koenigii. Structure-activity relationships of some of the isolated compounds were also discussed.

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    • "Many plant occurring bioactive compounds can be considered as good alternatives to synthetic antimicrobial and antioxidant food additives (Cowan 1999; Silva-Espinoza and others 2013). These compounds are mostly derived from plants and their antimicrobial and antioxidant in vitro testing have resulted in many publications in the last decade (Nakatani 2000; Yanishlieva and others 2006; Krishnaiah and others 2011; Martins and others 2013). The antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of bioactive compounds are mainly due to their redox properties, ability to chelate metals, and quenching reactive species of singlet oxygen (Krishnaiah and others 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Many food preservation strategies can be used for the control of microbial spoilage and oxidation; however, these quality problems are not yet controlled adequately. Although synthetic antimicrobial and antioxidant agents are approved in many countries, the use of natural safe and effective preservatives is a demand of food consumers and producers. This paper proposes medicinal plants, traditionally used to treat health disorders and prevent diseases, as a source of bioactive compounds having food additive properties. Medicinal plants are rich in terpenes and phenolic compounds that present antimicrobial and antioxidant properties; in addition, the literature revealed that these bioactive compounds extracted from other plants have been effective in food systems. In this context, the present hypothesis paper states that bioactive molecules extracted from medicinal plants can be used as antimicrobial and antioxidant additives in the food industry.
    Journal of Food Science 01/2014; 79(2). DOI:10.1111/1750-3841.12341 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    • "rosmarinic acid are supposed to be significantly involved in the high antioxidative and antimicrobial activity of oregano preparations (e.g. Nakatani, 2000; Park, 2011). Arbutin, a hydroquinone derivative whose metabolites could exhibit adverse effects (Nowak et al., 1995; Peters et al., 1997) is an undesirable substance in the daily human diet but of interest in terms of its diuretic and urinary anti-infective properties (Yarnell, 2002) and its bleaching effects on pigmented moles (Lin et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: This investigation was aiming at the phytochemical characterisation of Origanumvulgare subsp. vulgare from Austria. To study the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil compounds 374 individual plants were analysed via GC. The volatiles of Austrian O. vulgare subsp. vulgare were found to be complex mixtures of 53 mono- and sesquiterpenes. Among the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, E-E-α-farnesene, germacrene D-4-ol and caryophyllene oxide were frequently present in higher amounts. The monoterpenes were mainly made up of sabinyl-compounds [mainly sabinene (up to 48.4%) and cis-sabinene hydrate (up to 57.8%)] and/or cymyl-compounds [mainly p-cymene (up to 49.7%), γ-terpinene (up to 21.5%) and carvacrol (up to 32.9%)] that were accompanied by usually smaller amounts of bornyl-compounds and acyclic compounds. Some exceptional (in O. vulgare rare) chemotypes were detected. The essential oil content of Austrian O. vulgare subsp. vulgare ranged between 0.1 and 1.8%. The content of rosmarinic acid was analysed by HPLC and ranged from 0.6 mg/g dry mass up to 37.2 mg/g dry mass. No arbutin could be detected in the analysed populations.
    Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 10/2013; 50:106–113. DOI:10.1016/j.bse.2013.03.037 · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    • "They have been regarded as possible antioxidants, so their roles in food industry and in chemoprevention of diseases resulting from oxidative stress have become an area of active research in many fields (Block et al., 1992; Nakatani, 2000; Noguchi and Niki, 2000; Ross and Fuster, 1996; Steinmetzer and Potter, 1991). Nevertheless , there are still many phenolic compounds with unclear or unidentified prooxidant/antioxidant properties (Cemeli et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Pycnogenol® (PYC), a standardized plant extract obtained from the bark of the French maritime pine Pinus pinaster, has been suggested to exert strong antioxidant activity and used as a phytochemical remedy for various diseases. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant capacity of PYC by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and the cytotoxicity by neutral red uptake (NRU) test in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. The genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of PYC were evaluated by the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) and alkaline comet assays in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. At the concentrations of 2-200 μg/ml, PYC was found to have antioxidant activity. The viability of CHO cells during 24h exposure were not affected at the concentrations of 5-150 μg/ml of PYC. IC50 value of PYC was found to be 285 μg/ml. At the concentrations above 100 μg/ml, PYC alone induced DNA damage and increased MN frequency, although PYC at all concentrations in a dose dependent manner revealed a reduction in the frequency of MN and the extent of DNA damage induced by H2O2. These results suggest PYC might reduce H2O2 induced chromosome breakage and loss and DNA damage in cultured human lymphocytes.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 07/2013; 61. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2013.06.053 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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