Experimental pneumococcal meningitis in mice: a model of intranasal infection.
ABSTRACT Effective laboratory animal models of bacterial meningitis are needed to unravel the pathophysiology of this disease. Previous models have failed to simulate human meningitis by using a directly intracerebral route of infection. Hyaluronidase is a virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, a novel model of murine meningitis is described. Intranasal administration of S. pneumoniae with hyaluronidase induced meningitis in 50% of inoculated mice, as defined by a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and an inflammatory infiltrate in the meninges. None of the mice inoculated without hyaluronidase developed meningitis. Hyaluronidase was found to facilitate pneumococcal invasion of the bloodstream after colonization of the upper respiratory tract. Meningitis was characterized by pleocytosis of CSF and the induction of proinflammatory cytokines and CXC chemokines in brain tissue. These results indicate that this murine model mimics important features of human disease and allow for the use of this model for studying issues related to the pathophysiology and the treatment of pneumococcal meningitis.
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ABSTRACT: S. pneumoniae is the most common causative agent of meningitis, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We aimed to develop an integrated and representative pneumococcal meningitis mouse model resembling the human situation. Adult mice (C57BL/6) were inoculated in the cisterna magna with increasing doses of S. pneumoniae serotype 3 colony forming units (CFU; n = 24, 104, 105, 106 and 107 CFU) and survival studies were performed. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), brain, blood, spleen, and lungs were collected. Subsequently, mice were inoculated with 104 CFU S. pneumoniae serotype 3 and sacrificed at 6 (n = 6) and 30 hours (n = 6). Outcome parameters were bacterial outgrowth, clinical score, and cytokine and chemokine levels (using Luminex®) in CSF, blood and brain. Meningeal inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, parenchymal and subarachnoidal hemorrhages, microglial activation and hippocampal apoptosis were assessed in histopathological studies. Lower doses of bacteria delayed onset of illness and time of death (median survival CFU 104, 56 hrs; 105, 38 hrs, 106, 28 hrs. 107, 24 hrs). Bacterial titers in brain and CSF were similar in all mice at the end-stage of disease independent of inoculation dose, though bacterial outgrowth in the systemic compartment was less at lower inoculation doses. At 30 hours after inoculation with 104 CFU of S. pneumoniae, blood levels of KC, IL6, MIP-2 and IFN- γ were elevated, as were brain homogenate levels of KC, MIP-2, IL-6, IL-1β and RANTES. Brain histology uniformly showed meningeal inflammation at 6 hours, and, neutrophil infiltration, microglial activation, and hippocampal apoptosis at 30 hours. Parenchymal and subarachnoidal and cortical hemorrhages were seen in 5 of 6 and 3 of 6 mice at 6 and 30 hours, respectively. We have developed and validated a murine model of pneumococcal meningitis.BMC Infectious Diseases 03/2012; 12:71. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bacterial cell-surface proteins play integral roles in host-pathogen interactions. These proteins are often architecturally and functionally sophisticated and yet few studies of such proteins involved in host-pathogen interactions have defined the domains or modules required for specific functions. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), an opportunistic pathogen that is a leading cause of community acquired pneumonia, otitis media and bacteremia, is decorated with many complex surface proteins. These include β-galactosidase BgaA, which is specific for terminal galactose residues β-1-4 linked to glucose or N-acetylglucosamine and known to play a role in pneumococcal growth, resistance to opsonophagocytic killing, and adherence. This study defines the domains and modules of BgaA that are required for these distinct contributions to pneumococcal pathogenesis. Inhibitors of β-galactosidase activity reduced pneumococcal growth and increased opsonophagocytic killing in a BgaA dependent manner, indicating these functions require BgaA enzymatic activity. In contrast, inhibitors increased pneumococcal adherence suggesting that BgaA bound a substrate of the enzyme through a distinct module or domain. Extensive biochemical, structural and cell based studies revealed two newly identified non-enzymatic carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) mediate adherence to the host cell surface displayed lactose or N-acetyllactosamine. This finding is important to pneumococcal biology as it is the first adhesin-carbohydrate receptor pair identified, supporting the widely held belief that initial pneumococcal attachment is to a glycoconjugate. Perhaps more importantly, this is the first demonstration that a CBM within a carbohydrate-active enzyme can mediate adherence to host cells and thus this study identifies a new class of carbohydrate-binding adhesins and extends the paradigm of CBM function. As other bacterial species express surface-associated carbohydrate-active enzymes containing CBMs these findings have broad implications for bacterial adherence. Together, these data illustrate that comprehending the architectural sophistication of surface-attached proteins can increase our understanding of the different mechanisms by which these proteins can contribute to bacterial pathogenesis.PLoS Pathogens 09/2014; 10(9):e1004364. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigate the role of hyaluronic acid (HA) on S. pneumoniae in vitro biofilm formation and evaluate gene expressions of virulence and/or biofilm related genes. Biofilms were grown in medium supplied with HA derived from capsule of Streptococcus equi. The biomasses of biofilms were detected by crystal-violet (CV) microtiter plate assay, and the morphology was viewed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The gene expressions were assessed by relative quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that the HA support pneumococcal growth in planktonic form and within biofilms. The CV-microtiter plate assay detected significantly increased biofilm growth in medium containing HA. The SEM analysis revealed thick and organized biofilms in positive control and HA supplemented medium. The nanA, nanB, bgaA, strH, luxS, hysA, ugl, and PST-EIIA encoding genes were significantly upregulated in the planktonic cells grown in presence of HA, while the lytA and comA genes were downregulated. Similarly the luxS, hysA, ugl, and PST-EIIA encoding genes were significantly upregulated by more than 2-folds in HA biofilms. The results of this study indicate that the HA derived from capsule of S. equi supports pneumococcal growth in planktonic state and within biofilms and upregulated virulence and biofilm related genes.BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:690217.