Chemical organization of the macaque monkey olfactory bulb: II. Calretinin, calbindin D-28k, parvalbumin, and neurocalcin immunoreactivity.
ABSTRACT The distribution and morphologic features of calcium-binding protein- (calbindin D-28k, calretinin, neurocalcin, and parvalbumin) immunoreactive elements were studied in the macaque monkey olfactory bulb by using specific antibodies and the avidin-biotin-immunoperoxidase method. A characteristic laminar pattern of stained elements was observed for each marker. Scarce superficial short-axon cells and superficial stellate cells demonstrated calbindin D-28k immunoreactivity in the outer layers, whereas a moderate number of calbindin D-28k-immunoreactive granule cells and scarce deep short-axon cells were observed in the inner layers. Calretinin-staining demonstrated abundant periglomerular cells and granule cells and a scarce number of other interneuronal populations. Most neurocalcin-immunopositive elements were external and medial tufted cells and periglomerular cells, although other scarcer interneuronal populations were also immunostained. A few superficial and deep short-axon cells as well as small interneurons in the external plexiform layer were the only elements immunoreactive to parvalbumin. The distribution of the immunoreactive elements in the olfactory bulb of the macaque monkey showed a high similarity to that reported in the human, whereas it demonstrated a different and simpler pattern to what has been reported in the olfactory bulb of macrosmatic animals. It suggests more homogeneous calcium-mediated cell responses after stimulation that could be correlated to the lower capability to modulate olfactory signals in microsmatic animals. In addition, these results indicate that experimental models in rodents do not provide an accurate estimation of calcium-binding protein-immunoreactive neuronal populations in the primate olfactory system.