Pathogenesis and management of sodium and water retention in cardiac failure and cirrhosis.
ABSTRACT The kidneys play the crucial role in the maintenance of the body fluid volume homeostasis. Several hypotheses have been introduced to explain sodium and water retention leading to edematous states in such pathologic conditions as congestive heart failure (CHF) and cirrhosis. We have suggested a unifying arterial underfilling hypothesis, explaining the development of edema in these conditions. Arterial underfilling, caused by decreased cardiac output or peripheral arterial vasodilation, leads to activation of the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and nonosmotic vasopressin release. This review discusses the pathophysiologic mechanisms resulting in renal sodium and water retention, impaired mineralocorticoid escape, and resistance to atrial natriuretic peptide in patients with CHF and cirrhosis. Furthermore, the basis of current therapies in these disorders is discussed, including beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, aldosterone antagonists, and diuretics in CHF and cirrhosis, as well as new approaches to treatment of water retention with vasopressin V(2) receptor antagonists.
- SourceAvailable from: Robert G Fassett[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Central to a unifying hypothesis of body fluid regulation is maintenance of arterial circulatory integrity. This may be disturbed by arterial underfilling, either from reduction in cardiac output or by peripheral arterial vasodilation. In cardiac failure (CF), cardiac output falls and the nonosmotic release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and expression of AVP mRNA in the hypothalamus are stimulated. V2 AVP receptor antagonists correct the impaired water excretion in rats with low-output CF, increase solute free water clearance, correct the hyponatremia in congestive CF patients, and normalize urinary concentrations of the aquaporin-2 (AQP-2) water channels. In conditions associated with peripheral vasodilation, such as cirrhosis, nonosmotic release of AVP also occurs, and AQP-2 gene expression in the rat kidney is up-regulated. In cirrhosis, nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation occurs early prior to water retention. V2 antagonists reverse the latter. In normal pregnancy, plasma AVP is relatively high for the degree of hypoosmolality. Pregnant rats up-regulate AQP-2 in the renal papilla, an effect reversed by V2 receptor antagonists. This supports the hypothesis that AVP is an important mediator of renal water retention in pregnancy. In summary, AVP-mediated water retention through collecting duct AQP-2 water channels is important in both low-output CF and high-output states such as cirrhosis and pregnancy. V2 receptor antagonists reverse the water retention and down-regulate AQP-2 water channels.Kidney international. Supplement 10/1998; 67:S127-32.
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ABSTRACT: We investigated atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in humans, measuring plasma immunoreactive (ir) ANF (in femtomoles per milliliter), and renal, hormonal, and hemodynamic responses to ANF infusion, in normal subjects (NL) and congestive heart failure patients (CHF). Plasma irANF was 11 +/- 0.9 fmol/ml in NL and 71 +/- 9.9 in CHF (P less than 0.01); the latter with twofold right ventricular increment (P less than 0.05). In NL, ANF infusion of 0.10 microgram/kg per min (40 pmol/kg per min) induced increases (P less than 0.05) of absolute (from 160 +/- 23 to 725 +/- 198 mueq/min) and fractional (1-4%) sodium excretion, urine flow rate (from 10 +/- 1.6 to 20 +/- 2.6 ml/min), osmolar (from 3.2 +/- 0.6 to 6.8 +/- 1.2 ml/min) and free water (from 6.8 +/- 1.6 to 13.6 +/- 1.6 ml/min) clearances, and filtration fraction (from 20 +/- 1 to 26 +/- 2%). Plasma renin and aldosterone decreased 33% and 40%, respectively (P less than 0.01). Systolic blood pressure fell (from 112 +/- 3 to 104 +/- 5 mmHg, P less than 0.05) in seated NL; but in supine NL, the only hemodynamic response was decreased pulmonary wedge pressure (from 11 +/- 1 to 7 +/- 1 mmHg, P less than 0.05). In CHF, ANF induced changes in aldosterone and pulmonary wedge pressure, cardiac index, and systemic vascular resistance (all P less than 0.05); however, responses of renin and renal excretion were attenuated. ANF infusion increased hematocrit and serum protein concentration by 5-7% in NL (P less than 0.05) but not in CHF.Journal of Clinical Investigation 12/1986; 78(5):1362-74. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Supernatants of atrial or ventricular myocardial homogenates were injected intravenously into anaesthetized non-diuretic rats. Extract derived from atrial muscle caused a rapid, more than 30-fold increase of sodium and chloride excretions, while urine volume rose 10-fold, and potassium excretion doubled. No such changes were observed after injection of ventricular tissue extract obtained from the same rat hearts, or after injection of the homogenization medium. There was no significant difference in glomerular filtration rates between the two groups. We conclude that the atrial extract contained an extremely powerful inhibitor of renal tubular NaCl reabsorption.Life Sciences 02/1981; 28(1):89-94. · 2.56 Impact Factor