Pathogenesis and management of sodium and water retention in cardiac failure and cirrhosis.
ABSTRACT The kidneys play the crucial role in the maintenance of the body fluid volume homeostasis. Several hypotheses have been introduced to explain sodium and water retention leading to edematous states in such pathologic conditions as congestive heart failure (CHF) and cirrhosis. We have suggested a unifying arterial underfilling hypothesis, explaining the development of edema in these conditions. Arterial underfilling, caused by decreased cardiac output or peripheral arterial vasodilation, leads to activation of the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and nonosmotic vasopressin release. This review discusses the pathophysiologic mechanisms resulting in renal sodium and water retention, impaired mineralocorticoid escape, and resistance to atrial natriuretic peptide in patients with CHF and cirrhosis. Furthermore, the basis of current therapies in these disorders is discussed, including beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, aldosterone antagonists, and diuretics in CHF and cirrhosis, as well as new approaches to treatment of water retention with vasopressin V(2) receptor antagonists.
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ABSTRACT: The dysregulation of arginine vasopressin (AVP) release and activation of vasopressin V(1A) and V(2) receptors may play a role in disease. The in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of RWJ-676070, a potent, balanced antagonist of both the V(1A) and V(2) receptors is described. RWJ-676070 binding and intracellular functional antagonist activity was characterized using cells expressing V(1A), V(1B) or V(2) receptors. Its inhibition of V(1A) receptor-mediated contraction of vascular rings and platelet aggregation was determined. V(2) receptor-medated aquaresis was determined in rats, dogs and monkeys. V(1A) receptor-mediated inhibitory activity was assessed in vivo in a vasopressin-induced hypertension model and in normotensive rats and in two hypertensive rat models. RWJ-676070 inhibited AVP binding to human V(1A) and V(2) receptors (Ki=1 and 14 nM, respectively). RWJ-676070 inhibited V(1A) receptor-induced intracellular calcium mobilization and V(2) receptor-induced cAMP accumulation with Ki values of 14 nM and 13 nM, respectively. The compound was slightly less potent against rat V(1A) receptors. RWJ-676070 inhibited V(1A) receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in rat and dog vascular rings and AVP-induced human platelet aggregation. Dose dependent aquaresis was demonstrated in rats, dogs and monkeys following oral administration. RWJ-676070 inhibited AVP-induced hypertension in rats but had no effect on arterial pressure in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats but did decrease arterial pressure in Dahl, salt-sensitive hypertensive rats. RWJ-676070 is a new, potent antagonist of V(1A) and V(2) receptors that may be useful for treatment of diseases benefiting from balanced inhibition of both V(1A) and V(2) receptors.European Journal of Pharmacology 07/2008; 590(1-3):333-42. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.06.010 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rho-dependent kinases serve as downstream effectors of several vasoconstrictor systems, the activities of which are upregulated in congestive heart failure (CHF). We evaluated renal and cardiac effects of Y-27632, a highly selective Rho kinase inhibitor, in an experimental model of volume-overload CHF. Effects of acute administration of Y-27632 (0.3 mg/kg) on renal hemodynamic and clearance parameters and effects of chronic treatment (10.0 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) for 7 days via osmotic minipumps) on cardiac hypertrophy and cumulative Na+ excretion were studied in male Wistar rats with aortocaval fistula and control rats. The Y-27632-induced decrease in renal vascular resistance (from 40.4 +/- 4.6 to 26.0 +/- 3.1 resistance units, P < 0.01) in CHF rats was associated with a significant increase in total renal blood flow (+34%) and cortical and medullary blood flow (approx +37 and +27%, respectively). These values were significantly higher than those in control rats and occurred despite a decrease in mean arterial pressure (-15 mmHg). Despite the marked renal vasodilatory effect, Y-27632 did not alter glomerular filtration rate and renal Na+ excretion. Chronic administration of Y-27632 did not alter daily or cumulative renal Na+ excretion in CHF rats but was associated with a significant decrease in heart-to-body weight ratio, an index of cardiac hypertrophy: 0.32 +/- 0.007, 0.46 +/- 0.017, and 0.37 +/- 0.006% in control, CHF, and CHF + Y-27632 rats, respectively. The findings suggest that Rho kinase-dependent pathways are involved in the mechanisms of renal vasoconstriction and cardiac hypertrophy in rats with volume-overload heart failure. Selective blockade of these signaling pathways may be considered an additional tool to improve renal perfusion and attenuate cardiac hypertrophy in heart failure.AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 06/2006; 290(5):H2007-14. DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.00600.2005 · 4.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the principal cell of the renal collecting duct, vasopressin regulates the expression of a gene network responsible for sodium and water reabsorption through the regulation of the water channel and the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). We have recently identified a novel vasopressin-induced transcript (VIT32) that encodes for a 142 amino acid vasopressin-induced protein (VIP32), which has no homology with any protein of known function. The Xenopus oocyte expression system revealed two functions: (i) when injected alone, VIT32 cRNA rapidly induces oocyte meiotic maturation through the activation of the maturation promoting factor, the amphibian homolog of the universal M phase trigger Cdc2/cyclin; and (ii) when co-injected with the ENaC, VIT32 cRNA selectively downregulates channel activity, but not channel cell surface expression. In the kidney principal cell, VIP32 may be involved in the downregulation of transepithelial sodium transport observed within a few hours after vasopressin treatment. VIP32 belongs to a novel gene family ubiquitously expressed in oocyte and somatic cells that may be involved in G to M transition and cell cycling.The EMBO Journal 11/2002; 21(19):5109-17. · 10.75 Impact Factor