Cutaneous parameters such as dermal thickness, stiffness, elasticity, skin surface lipid and hydration were evaluated using noninvasive methods in 77 growth hormone-deficient (GHD) children before replacement therapy and in 70 non-GHD children. We showed that in GHD children, dermis was thinner (0.70 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.80 +/- 0.10 mm, p < 0.0001 for prepubertal children and 0.81 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.94 +/- 0.11 mm, p < 0.0001 for pubertal children), stiffer (178.5 +/- 57.3 vs. 113.09 +/- 37 kPa, p < 0.0001 for prepubertal children and 172.5 +/- 61.7 vs. 117.3 +/- 42.5 kPa for pubertal children, p < 0.001) and less elastic (0.44 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.39 +/- 0.06 (nonelasticity index), p < 0.01 for prepubertal children and 0.39 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.33 +/- 0.04, p < 0.001 for pubertal children) compared to controls. Fourteen GHD children were re-evaluated after 1 year of GH treatment: dermal thickness and skin stiffness were significantly improved (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05 respectively) while elasticity was not modified. During the same period, 11 controls did not show any significant cutaneous modification. IGF-1 values, but not IGFBP-3 values, correlated positively with dermal thickness in GHD children, before and after 1 year of GH treatment. To conclude, GHD children exhibited specific cutaneous modifications. In a subset of GHD children, we showed that these modifications were influenced by GH treatment. More extensive studies are needed to see if these changes correlated with other GH effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have investigated in vivo the change with age of various parameters that describe the physical properties of skin. The parameters were derived from pressure/displacement curves obtained by applying reduced pressure to a small area of skin and measuring the resulting displacement by 20 MHz scan echography. By fitting the pressure/displacement curves to a theoretical model, the following skin parameters were obtained: E, Young's modulus or stiffness (in Pascals); sigma(0), the initial stress (in Pascals); and the unrestored energy ratio (UER), an index related to cutaneous non-elasticity. These parameters, which are used in mechanics to define the intrinsic physical characteristics of materials, were measured for the first time on volar forearm skin of 206 male and female subjects, aged between 6 months and 90 years. The results showed that skin thickness increases until maturity and decreases for women over 50-60 years old, Young's modulus E increases linearly with age, and ageing is divided into two phases for natural stress, sigma(0) and the non-elasticity index UER. Natural stress sigma(0) increases until maturity and then rapidly decreases. The non-elasticity index decreases until puberty and steadily increases after puberty. This new procedure provides a simple quantitative assessment of the physical properties of the skin, revealing that the skin becomes thinner, stiffer, less tense and elastic with ageing.
International journal of cosmetic science 01/2002; 23(6):353-62. DOI:10.1046/j.0412-5463.2001.00105.x · 1.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Somatotropic effects are described in the skin. Indeed, acromegaly is in part clinically recognized by cutaneous coarsening. The actual changes in tensile properties associated with the cutaneous manifestations are largely unknown.
To study the relationships between the skin tensile properties and the severity of acromegaly as assessed by serum levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).
Assessments were made in 13 patients with acromegaly treated by somatostatin agonists combined or not with surgery. A total of 39 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects served as controls. Skin tensile properties were measured on the forearm and nape of the neck using a computerized suction device.
Significant differences were yielded between the skin tensile properties in patients and normal subjects. The highest IGF-1 values in the patients' medical records were positively correlated with both skin distensibility and biologic elasticity. The most recent IGF-1 serum levels were negatively correlated with the visco-elastic ratio. No correlations were yielded between any of the biomechanical parameters and GH levels, disease duration and treatment dosages, respectively.
The skin in acromegaly appears to be functionally more redundant and elastic than normal skin. The biomechanical changes appear quite different from those observed in other diseases with collagen deposition such as diabetes mellitus and scleroderma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the year 2000, several original studies were published regarding the metabolic effects of growth hormone therapy in pediatric patients. Pharmacologic doses of growth hormone were rarely associated with abnormalities in glucose tolerance in children with intrauterine growth retardation and Turner syndrome; however, serum insulin levels were elevated. A report from the Pharmacia International Growth Study database suggested a possible increase in type 2 diabetes in growth hormone-treated patients, indicating the need for continued surveillance for this condition. Growth hormone therapy increased markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density in children with chronic renal failure and Prader-Willi syndrome. In Prader-Willi syndrome, 2 years of growth hormone therapy also induced a sustained decrease in body fat, improvement in strength and physical skills, and increased lean body mass. Serum leptin, a reflection of body fat, declined with growth hormone therapy in a dose-dependent manner in intrauterine growth retardation children; the magnitude of the decline correlated with linear growth response. Skin is a target organ for growth hormone in children; growth hormone increased dermal thickness and reduced skin stiffness in growth hormone-deficient children. Reassuring data were published regarding the risk of tumor recurrence and mortality in children with brain tumors treated with growth hormone. Growth hormone administered to short children prior to kidney transplantation did not have adverse effects on subsequent graft survival or number of rejection episodes.
Current Opinion in Pediatrics 09/2002; 14(4):432-6. DOI:10.1097/00008480-200208000-00014 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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