Bicaudal-D is essential for egg chamber formation and cytoskeletal organization in drosophila oogenesis.
ABSTRACT Bicaudal-D (Bic-D) is required for the transport of determinant mRNAs and proteins to the presumptive oocyte, an essential step in the differentiation of the oocyte. Bic-D protein contains four well-defined heptad repeat domains characteristic of intermediate filament proteins. We characterized the ovarian phenotypes of females expressing mutant Bic-D proteins (Bic-D(H)) deleted for each of the heptad repeat domains. The altered migration of follicle cells we observe in mutant ovaries suggests that Bic-D functions in the germline and directs the inward migration of somatic follicle cells. In the germarium Bic-D is required for the organization of the egg chamber and the structural integrity of the oocyte and nurse cells. Examination of the polarized microtubule network in Bic-D(H) ovaries shows that Bic-D function is required for both the establishment of the polarized microtubule network and its maintenance throughout oogenesis. To explain the multiple functions suggested by the pleiotropic Bic-D phenotype, we propose that Bic-D protein could form itself a filamentous structure and represent an integral, essential part of the cytoskeleton.
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ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic cells use cytoskeletal motor proteins to transport many different intracellular cargos. Numerous kinesins and myosins have evolved to cope with the various transport needs that have arisen during eukaryotic evolution. Surprisingly, a single cytoplasmic dynein (a minus end-directed microtubule motor) carries out similarly diverse transport activities as the many different types of kinesin. How is dynein coupled to its wide range of cargos and how is it spatially and temporally regulated? The answer could lie in the several multifunctional adaptors, including dynactin, lissencephaly 1, nuclear distribution protein E (NUDE) and NUDE-like, Bicaudal D, Rod-ZW10-Zwilch and Spindly, that regulate dynein function and localization.Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 12/2009; 10(12):854-65. · 39.12 Impact Factor