Prenatal risk factors of wheezing at the age of four years in Tanzania.
ABSTRACT A study was undertaken to assess the interactions between prenatal exposures, early life infections, atopic predisposition, and allergen exposures in the development of wheezing up to the age of 4 years in a tropical region of Africa.
The study subjects comprised children born at the district hospital in Ifakara, Tanzania during a 1 year period who were participating in a trial of iron supplementation and malaria chemoprophylaxis during the first year of life and followed for up to 4 years. From this group of subjects, 658 (79%) participated in the interview at 18 months and 528 (64%) in a second interview at 4 years. Wheezing was measured with the ISAAC questionnaire. A hospital based inpatient and outpatient surveillance system was set up to document all attendance by study children for any cause, including episodes of clinical malaria and lower respiratory tract infections. Total IgE levels and malaria parasites were measured in maternal and cord blood. Total IgE was also measured at 18 months of age. Indoor environmental levels of Der p I and Fel d I were determined using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay at the same time as the interview at the age of 18 months.
The prevalence of wheezing at 4 years is common in Ifakara (14%, range 13-15%). The presence of malaria parasites in cord blood (odds ratio, OR = 6.84, 95% CI 1.84 to 24.0) and maternal asthma (OR = 8.47, 95% CI 2.72 to 26.2) were positively associated with wheezing at the age of 4 years, and cord blood total IgE was negatively associated (OR = 0.24, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.85) (all p<0.05). Parasitaemia at birth was not related to total IgE levels in cord blood (p=0.6). Clinical episodes of malaria during infancy were not associated with wheezing, and nor were levels of indoor aeroallergens.
These findings suggest that events occurring during pregnancy may play a role in the future appearance of wheezing, although the results must be interpreted with caution because of the small numbers studied.
Article: Genetic determination and linkage mapping of Plasmodium falciparum malaria related traits in Senegal.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Plasmodium falciparum malaria episodes may vary considerably in their severity and clinical manifestations. There is good evidence that host genetic factors contribute to this variability. To date, most genetic studies aiming at the identification of these genes have used a case/control study design for severe malaria, exploring specific candidate genes. Here, we performed a family-based genetic study of falciparum malaria related phenotypes in two independent longitudinal survey cohorts, as a first step towards the identification of genes and mechanisms involved in the outcome of infection. We studied two Senegalese villages, Dielmo and Ndiop that differ in ethnicity, malaria transmission and endemicity. We performed genome-scan linkage analysis of several malaria-related phenotypes both during clinical attacks and asymptomatic infection. We show evidence for a strong genetic contribution to both the number of clinical falciparum malaria attacks and the asymptomatic parasite density. The asymptomatic parasite density showed linkage to chromosome 5q31 (LOD = 2.26, empirical p = 0.0014, Dielmo), confirming previous findings in other studies. Suggestive linkage values were also obtained at three additional chromosome regions: the number of clinical malaria attacks on chromosome 5p15 (LOD = 2.57, empirical p = 0.001, Dielmo) and 13q13 (LOD = 2.37, empirical p = 0.0014 Dielmo), and the maximum parasite density during asymptomatic infection on chromosome 12q21 (LOD = 3.1, empirical p<10(-4), Ndiop). While regions of linkage show little overlap with genes known to be involved in severe malaria, the four regions appear to overlap with regions linked to asthma or atopy related traits, suggesting that common immune related pathways may be involved.PLoS ONE 01/2008; 3(4):e2000. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many human epidemiologic studies demonstrate that maternal asthma confers greater risk of asthma to offspring than does paternal disease. However, a handful have shown the opposite. Given this disparity, a meta-analysis is necessary to determine the veracity and magnitude of the "maternal effect." We screened the medical literature from 1966 to 2009 and performed a meta-analysis to compare the effect of maternal asthma vs. paternal asthma on offspring asthma susceptibility. Aggregating data from 33 studies, the odds ratio for asthma in children of asthmatic mothers compared with non-asthmatic mothers was significantly increased at 3.04 (95% confidence interval: 2.59-3.56). The corresponding odds ratio for asthma in children of asthmatic fathers was increased at 2.44 (2.14-2.79). When comparing the odds ratios, maternal asthma conferred greater risk of disease than did paternal asthma (3.04 vs. 2.44, p = 0.037). When analyzing the studies in which asthma was diagnosed by a physician the odds ratios were attenuated and no significant differences were observed (2.85 vs. 2.48, N = 18, p = 0.37). Similarly, no significant differences were observed between maternal and paternal odds ratios when analyzing the studies in which the patient population was 5 years or older (3.15 vs. 2.60, p = 0.14). However, in all cases the trend remained the same, that maternal asthma was a greater risk factor for asthma than paternal. The results show that maternal asthma increases offspring disease risk to a greater extent than paternal disease.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(4):e10134. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Wheezing conditions in early childhood: prevalence and risk factors in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for wheezing disorders in early childhood in São Paulo, Brazil, the largest metropolitan area of South America. A population-based cross-sectional survey of 1132 children aged 6-59 months was carried out between 1995 and 1996 to obtain information on recent wheezing and on independent variables such as demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, maternal and nutritional variables and immunization status. Intestinal parasitic infections were diagnosed using standard techniques. Multiple unconditional logistic regression was used to describe associations between outcome and independent variables. The prevalence of recent wheezing (one or more reported episodes in the past 12 months) was 12.5%; 93% of children with wheezing were also reported to have a medical diagnosis of asthma. Recent wheezing was associated with low per capita income, poor quality of housing, day-care attendance, low birth weight and infection with intestinal helminths. Wheezing in early childhood in São Paulo, although more common than in most developing countries, remains less prevalent than in urban areas of industrialized countries. Low income and conditions associated with poverty (poor housing, low birth weight and parasitic infections) are some of the main risk factors for wheezing disorders among young children in this city.Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 08/2004; 82(7):516-22. · 4.64 Impact Factor