Antimycobacterial agent based on mRNA encoding human beta-defensin 2 enables primary macrophages to restrict growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
ABSTRACT Human macrophages are hosts for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, which killed approximately 1.87 million people in 1997. Human alveolar macrophages do not express alpha- or beta-defensins, broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides which are expressed in macrophages from other species more resistant to infection with M. tuberculosis. It has been previously reported that M. tuberculosis is susceptible to killing by defensins, which may explain the difference in resistance. Defensin peptides have been suggested as a possible therapeutic strategy for a variety of infectious diseases, but development has been hampered by difficulties in their large-scale production. Here we report the cellular synthesis of human beta-defensin 2 via highly efficient mRNA transfection of human macrophages. This enabled mycobactericidal and mycobacteristatic activity by the macrophages. Although human macrophages are difficult to transfect with plasmid vectors, these studies illustrate that primary macrophages are permissive for mRNA transfection, which enabled expression of a potentially therapeutic protein.
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ABSTRACT: Multicellular organisms live, by and large, harmoniously with microbes. The cornea of the eye of an animal is almost always free of signs of infection. The insect flourishes without lymphocytes or antibodies. A plant seed germinates successfully in the midst of soil microbes. How is this accomplished? Both animals and plants possess potent, broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides, which they use to fend off a wide range of microbes, including bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa. What sorts of molecules are they? How are they employed by animals in their defence? As our need for new antibiotics becomes more pressing, could we design anti-infective drugs based on the design principles these molecules teach us?Nature 02/2002; 415(6870):389-95. · 36.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial peptides/proteins are ancient and naturallyoccurring antibiotics in innate immune responses in a variety of organisms. Additionally, these peptides have been recognized as important signaling molecules in regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity. During mycobacterial infection, antimicrobial peptides including cathelicidin, defensin, and hepcidin have antimicrobial activities against mycobacteria, making them promising candidates for future drug development. Additionally, antimicrobial peptides act as immunomodulators in infectious and inflammatory conditions. Multiple crucial functions of cathelicidins in antimycobacterial immune defense have been characterized not only in terms of direct killing of mycobacteria but also as innate immune regulators, i.e., in secretion of cytokines and chemokines, and mediating autophagy activation. Defensin families are also important during mycobacterial infection and contribute to antimycobacterial defense and inhibition of mycobacterial growth both in vitro and in vivo. Hepcidin, although its role in mycobacterial infection has not yet been characterized, exerts antimycobacterial effects in activated macrophages. The present review focuses on recent efforts to elucidate the roles of host defense peptides in innate immunity to mycobacteria.Immune Network 10/2011; 11(5):245-52.
Article: CpG oligodeoxynucleotides promote phospholipase D dependent phagolysosome maturation and intracellular mycobacterial killing in M. tuberculosis infected type II alveolar epithelial cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: CpG oligodeoxynucleotides have been previously shown to enhance antimycobacterial response in human monocytes/macrophages. The present study reports evidences showing the capability of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides to induce (i) host phospholipase D (PLD) activation, (ii) PLD dependent reactive oxygen intermediate production, (iii) PLD dependent phagolysosome maturation and (iv) PLD dependent intracellular mycobacterial killing in type II alveolar epithelial cells. These are the first evidences showing that alveolar epithelial cells may represent efficient effecter cells during primary innate antimycobacterial immune response.Cellular Immunology 07/2009; 259(1):1-4. · 1.97 Impact Factor