Risk factors for proximal humerus, forearm, and wrist fractures in elderly men and women: the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study.
ABSTRACT Fractures of the proximal humerus, forearm, and wrist account for approximately one third of total osteoporotic fractures in the elderly. Several risk factors for these fractures were evaluated in this prospective study of 739 men and 1,105 women aged > or =60 years in Dubbo, Australia. During follow-up (1989-1996), the respective incidences of humerus and of forearm and wrist fractures, per 10,000 person-years, were 22.6 and 33.8 for men and 54.8 and 124.6 for women. Independent predictors of humerus fracture were femoral neck bone mineral density (FNBMD) (relative risk (RR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2, 4.5) in men and FNBMD (RR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.7, 3.5) and height loss (RR = 1.1, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.2) in women. For forearm and wrist fractures, risk factors were FNBMD (men: RR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.3; women: RR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.9) and height loss (men: RR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.3; women: RR = 1.1, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.2). In addition, dietary calcium (men: RR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.6) and a history of falls (women: RR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.4, 2.6) were also significant. These data suggest that elderly men and women largely share common risk factors for upper limb fractures and that FNBMD is the primary risk factor.
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ABSTRACT: In a large cohort of elderly women followed for 10 years, we found that balance, gait speed, and self-reported history of fall independently predicted fracture. These clinical risk factors are easily evaluated and therefore advantageous in a clinical setting. They would improve fracture risk assessment and thereby also fracture prevention. The aim of this study was to identify additional risk factors for osteoporosis-related fracture by investigating the fracture predictive ability of physical performance tests and self-reported history of falls. In the population-based Osteoporosis Prospective Risk Assessment study (OPRA), 1044 women were recruited at the age of 75 and followed for 10 years. At inclusion, knee extension force, standing balance, gait speed, and bone mineral density (BMD) were examined. Falls the year before investigation was assessed by questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine fracture hazard ratios (HR) with BMD, history of fracture, BMI, smoking habits, bisphosphonate, vitamin D, glucocorticoid, and alcohol use as covariates. Continuous variables were standardized and HR shown for each standard deviation change. Of all women, 427 (41 %) sustained at least one fracture during the 10-year follow-up. Failing the balance test had an HR of 1.98 (1.18-3.32) for hip fracture. Each standard deviation decrease in gait speed was associated with an HR of 1.37 (1.14-1.64) for hip fracture. Previous fall had an HR of 1.30 (1.03-1.65) for any fracture; 1.39 (1.08-1.79) for any osteoporosis-related fracture; and 1.60 (1.03-2.48) for distal forearm fracture. Knee extension force did not show fracture predictability. The balance test, gait speed test, and self-reported history of fall all hold independent fracture predictability. Consideration of these clinical risk factors for fracture would improve the fracture risk assessment and subsequently also fracture prevention.Osteoporosis International 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00198-015-3106-1 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Osteoporotic fractures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality particularly among older men. However, there is little information regarding risk factors among this population. The aims of our study were to determine risk factors for osteoporosis and fragility fractures and the predictive value of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements for development of fragility fractures in a cohort of elderly Caucasian and African American men. We evaluated 257 men aged 70 years or older for risk factors for osteoporosis and fragility fractures using a detailed questionnaire and BMD assessment. Exclusion criteria included conditions known to cause osteoporosis such as hypogonadism and chronic steroid use, current treatment with bisphosphonates, bilateral hip arthroplasties, and inability to ambulate independently. Age, weight, weight loss, androgen deprivation treatment, duration of use of dairy products, exercise, and fracture within 10 years prior to study entry were associated with osteoporosis (p < or = 0.05). Fragility fractures were associated with duration of use of dairy products, androgen deprivation treatment, osteoporosis, and history of fracture within 10 years prior to BMD assessment (p < or = 0.05). There were some differences in risk factors between the Caucasian and African American populations, suggesting that risk factors may vary between ethnic groups. Although men with osteoporosis had a higher rate of fractures, the majority of fractures occurred in men with T-scores > -2.5 standard deviations below the mean, suggesting that factors other than BMD are also important in determining risk.The Journal of Rheumatology 07/2009; 36(9):1947-52. DOI:10.3899/jrheum.080527 · 3.17 Impact Factor
- Current Orthopaedic Practice 01/2015; 26(2):169-180. DOI:10.1097/BCO.0000000000000211