Risk factors for proximal humerus, forearm, and wrist fractures in elderly men and women: the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study.
ABSTRACT Fractures of the proximal humerus, forearm, and wrist account for approximately one third of total osteoporotic fractures in the elderly. Several risk factors for these fractures were evaluated in this prospective study of 739 men and 1,105 women aged > or =60 years in Dubbo, Australia. During follow-up (1989-1996), the respective incidences of humerus and of forearm and wrist fractures, per 10,000 person-years, were 22.6 and 33.8 for men and 54.8 and 124.6 for women. Independent predictors of humerus fracture were femoral neck bone mineral density (FNBMD) (relative risk (RR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2, 4.5) in men and FNBMD (RR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.7, 3.5) and height loss (RR = 1.1, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.2) in women. For forearm and wrist fractures, risk factors were FNBMD (men: RR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.3; women: RR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.9) and height loss (men: RR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.3; women: RR = 1.1, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.2). In addition, dietary calcium (men: RR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.6) and a history of falls (women: RR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.4, 2.6) were also significant. These data suggest that elderly men and women largely share common risk factors for upper limb fractures and that FNBMD is the primary risk factor.
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ABSTRACT: FOXO3A variation has repeatedly been reported to associate with human longevity, yet only few studies have investigated whether FOXO3A variation also associates with aging-related traits. Here, we investigate the association of 15 FOXO3A tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1088 oldest-old Danes (age 92-93) with 4 phenotypes known to predict their survival: cognitive function, hand grip strength, activity of daily living (ADL), and self-rated health. Based on previous studies in humans and foxo animal models, we also explore self-reported diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and bone (femur/spine/hip/wrist) fracture. Gene-based testing revealed significant associations of FOXO3A variation with ADL (P = 0.044) and bone fracture (P = 0.006). The single-SNP statistics behind the gene-based analysis indicated increased ADL (decreased disability) and reduced bone fracture risk for carriers of the minor alleles of 8 and 10 SNPs, respectively. These positive directions of effects are in agreement with the positive effects on longevity previously reported for these SNPs. However, when correcting for the test of 9 phenotypes by Bonferroni correction, bone fracture showed borderline significance (P = 0.054), while ADL did not (P = 0.396). Although the single-SNP associations did not formally replicate in another study population of oldest-old Danes (n = 1279, age 94-100), the estimates were of similar direction of effect as observed in the Discovery sample. A pooled analysis of both study populations displayed similar or decreased sized P-values for most associations, hereby supporting the initial findings. Nevertheless, confirmation in additional study populations is needed. © 2014 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Aging cell 12/2014; · 7.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe the characteristics of patients hospitalized for osteoporotic proximal humerus fracture in 2009 in France, in-patient mortality, and further hospitalizations for hip fracture. Data were extracted from the French Hospital National Database. We selected patients aged 40years and over hospitalized for proximal humerus fracture in 2009, without cancer. Based on their unique identification number, we described the next hospitalizations occurring in 2009-2011 whatever the causes. Incidence, in-patient mortality, and hospital costs were calculated. We numbered 10,874 patients (77% of women, mean age 72.5years). The incidence per million was 477 and 163 in women and men, respectively. This incidence increased with age and was higher in women (i.e. 1374 and 320 in women and men aged over 74years, respectively). Surgical treatment was applied in 56% of patients; median hospital stay was 5days. Rehabilitation unit was necessary in 26% of cases. In-patient mortality was 1.1%. The overall hospital costs was €34millions. Rehospitalizations occurred for 61% of the patients and had more co-morbidities than others. Near 8% of the rehospitalized patients were for hip fractures occurring in a median of 353days after hospitalization for proximal humerus fracture. The hospital costs for these rehospitalizations was €52 millions. Proximal humerus fractures incidence increases with aging, especially in women. These fractures are associated with a significant in-patient mortality and health care resources utilization. Patients with such fracture must receive high priority for optimal post fracture treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.Orthopaedics & Traumatology Surgery & Research 11/2014; · 1.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The twofold greater lifetime risk of fracturing a bone for white women compared with white men and black women has been attributed in part to differences in how the skeletal system accumulates bone mass during growth. On average, women build more slender long bones with less cortical area compared with men. Although slender bones are known to have a naturally lower cortical area compared with wider bones, it remains unclear whether the relatively lower cortical area of women is consistent with their increased slenderness or is reduced beyond that expected for the sex-specific differences in bone size and body size. Whether this sexual dimorphism is consistent with ethnic background and is recapitulated in the widely used mouse model also remains unclear. We asked (1) do black women build bones with reduced cortical area compared with black men; (2) do white women build bones with reduced cortical area compared with white men; and (3) do female mice build bones with reduced cortical area compared with male mice? Bone strength and cross-sectional morphology of adult human and mouse bone were calculated from quantitative CT images of the femoral midshaft. The data were tested for normality and regression analyses were used to test for differences in cortical area between men and women after adjusting for body size and bone size by general linear model (GLM). Linear regression analysis showed that the femurs of black women had 11% lower cortical area compared with those of black men after adjusting for body size and bone size (women: mean = 357.7 mm(2); 95% confidence interval [CI], 347.9-367.5 mm(2); men: mean = 400.1 mm(2); 95% CI, 391.5-408.7 mm(2); effect size = 1.2; p < 0.001, GLM). Likewise, the femurs of white women had 12% less cortical area compared with those of white men after adjusting for body size and bone size (women: mean = 350.1 mm(2); 95% CI, 340.4-359.8 mm(2); men: mean = 394.3 mm(2); 95% CI, 386.5-402.1 mm(2); effect size = 1.3; p < 0.001, GLM). In contrast, female and male femora from recombinant inbred mouse strains showed the opposite trend; femurs from female mice had a 4% larger cortical area compared with those of male mice after adjusting for body size and bone size (female: mean = 0.73 mm(2); 95% CI, 0.71-0.74 mm(2); male: mean = 0.70 mm(2); 95% CI, 0.68-0.71 mm(2); effect size = 0.74; p = 0.04, GLM). Female femurs are not simply a more slender version of male femurs. Women acquire substantially less mass (cortical area) for their body size and bone size compared with men. Our analysis questions whether mouse long bone is a suitable model to study human sexual dimorphism. Identifying differences in the way bones are constructed may be clinically important for developing sex-specific diagnostics and treatment strategies to reduce fragility fractures.Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 02/2015; Early View. · 2.79 Impact Factor