Potentiation of Inhibition of Wild-Type and Mutant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcriptases by Combinations of Nonnucleoside Inhibitors and D- and L-( )-Dideoxynucleoside Triphosphate Analogs

Istituto di Genetica Biochimica ed Evoluzionistica-CNR, Università degli Studi, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 4.48). 05/2001; 45(4):1192-200. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.45.4.1192-1200.2001
Source: PubMed


Combinations of reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors are currently used in anti-human immunodeficiency virus therapy in order to prevent or delay the emergence of resistant virus and to improve the efficacy against viral enzymes carrying resistance mutations. Drug-drug interactions can result in either positive (additive or synergistic inhibition) or adverse (antagonistic interaction, synergistic toxicity) effects. Elucidation of the nature of drug interaction would help to rationalize the choice of antiretroviral agents to be used in combination. In this study, different combinations of nucleoside and nonnucleoside inhibitors, including D- and L-(beta)-deoxy- and -dideoxynucleoside triphosphate analogues, have been tested in in vitro RT assays against either recombinant wild-type RT or RT bearing clinically relevant nonnucleoside inhibitor resistance mutations (L100I, K103N, Y181I), and the nature of the interaction (either synergistic or antagonistic) of these associations was evaluated. The results showed that (i) synergy of a combination was not always equally influenced by the individual agents utilized, (ii) a synergistic combination could improve the sensitivity profile of a drug-resistant mutant enzyme to the single agents utilized, (iii) L-(beta)-enantiomers of nucleoside RT inhibitors were synergistic when combined with nonnucleoside RT inhibitors, and (iv) inter- and intracombination comparisons of the relative potencies of each drug could be used to highlight the different contributions of each drug to the observed synergy.

Download full-text


Available from: Massimo Pregnolato, Oct 12, 2015
8 Reads
  • Source
    • "Many NRTI+NNRTI combinations show synergistic anti-HIV activities in cell culture [7-12]. Synergistic effects were also shown by drug combinations in HIV-1 RT enzymatic assays [12-15]. The enhanced potency of the AZT+NVP combination in comparison to AZT alone was reported in a clinical trial study [16]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), emtricitabine (FTC), and efavirenz (EFV) are the three components of the once-daily, single tablet regimen (Atripla) for treatment of HIV-1 infection. Previous cell culture studies have demonstrated that the double combination of tenofovir (TFV), the parent drug of TDF, and FTC were additive to synergistic in their anti-HIV activity, which correlated with increased levels of intracellular phosphorylation of both compounds. In this study, we demonstrated the combinations of TFV+FTC, TFV+EFV, FTC+EFV, and TFV+FTC+EFV synergistically inhibit HIV replication in cell culture and synergistically inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) catalyzed DNA synthesis in biochemical assays. Several different methods were applied to define synergy including median-effect analysis, MacSynergyII and quantitative isobologram analysis. We demonstrated that the enhanced formation of dead-end complexes (DEC) by HIV-1 RT and TFV-terminated DNA in the presence of FTC-triphosphate (TP) could contribute to the synergy observed for the combination of TFV+FTC, possibly through reduced terminal NRTI excision. Furthermore, we showed that EFV facilitated efficient formation of stable, DEC-like complexes by TFV- or FTC-monophosphate (MP)-terminated DNA and this can contribute to the synergistic inhibition of HIV-1 RT by TFV-diphosphate (DP)+EFV and FTC-TP+EFV combinations. This study demonstrated a clear correlation between the synergistic antiviral activities of TFV+FTC, TFV+EFV, FTC+EFV, and TFV+FTC+EFV combinations and synergistic HIV-1 RT inhibition at the enzymatic level. We propose the molecular mechanisms for the TFV+FTC+EFV synergy to be a combination of increased levels of the active metabolites TFV-DP and FTC-TP and enhanced DEC formation by a chain-terminated DNA and HIV-1 RT in the presence of the second and the third drug in the combination. This study furthers the understanding of the longstanding observations of synergistic anti-HIV-1 effects of many NRTI+NNRTI and certain NRTI+NRTI combinations in cell culture, and provides biochemical evidence that combinations of anti-HIV agents can increase the intracellular drug efficacy, without increasing the extracellular drug concentrations.
    Retrovirology 06/2009; 6(1):44. DOI:10.1186/1742-4690-6-44 · 4.19 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The reverse transcriptase inhibitors still represent the majority of the clinically used anti-HIV drugs and constitute the main backbone of currently employed combinatorial regimens. A major obstacle to successfull chemotherapic eradication of HIV is the emergence of viral strains resistant to the drugs in use. Counteracting the emergence of resistance necessitates alternating the panel of agents employed. In order to rationally design alternative drug combinations, physicians not only must know the genotype of the emerging viral strains, but should also be able to correlate it with its resistant phenotype. However, resistant viral strains usually carry multiple mutations, whose reciprocal influences on the overall level of resistance are largely unknown. Moreover, the choice of agents to be combined must take in account drug-drug interactions and adverse metabolic effects. This review will outline the main pharmacological and clinical features of the currently utilised anti-reverse transcriptase drugs, as well as the correspondent resistance profiles selected during therapy. A major focus will be on the reciprocal influence of drug associations on their own metabolism as well as on the interacting effects of the selected combinations of drug resistance mutations.
    Current Drug Metabolism 03/2002; 3(1):73-95. DOI:10.2174/1389200023337982 · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To develop new approaches for the treatment of invasive infections caused by Scedosporium prolificans, the in vitro interaction between amphotericin B and pentamidine against 30 clinical isolates was evaluated using a checkerboard microdilution method based on the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards M38-P guidelines. The interaction between the drugs was analyzed using fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) analysis and response surface modeling. Amphotericin B alone was inactive against all the isolates. The geometric mean MIC for pentamidine was 57 μg/ml (range, 8 to 256 μg/ml; MIC at which 50% of the isolates tested were inhibited [MIC50], 64 μg/ml; MIC90, 128 μg/ml). The combination was synergistic against 28 of 30 isolates (93.3%) by FICI analysis and 30 of 30 (100%) by response surface modeling analysis. Antagonism was not observed.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11/2002; 46(10):3323-6. DOI:10.1128/AAC.46.10.3323-3326.2002 · 4.48 Impact Factor
Show more