Wu CLRegional anesthesia and anticoagulation. J Clin Anesth 13: 49-58
ABSTRACT The perioperative use of neuraxial techniques in the presence of anticoagulation is a controversial issue. There are significant pharmacokinetic differences between anticoagulants that will affect the timing of neuraxial needle insertion or catheter removal. The pharmacologic profiles of commonly used anticoagulants in the perioperative period are reviewed. Studies examining the use of neuraxial techniques in the presence of various anticoagulants are reviewed and evaluated in the context of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia consensus statements.
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- "Given that Tinzaparin has an anticoagulant activity, which is approximately 2.5 times greater than that of dp12, a subanticoagulant dose of dp12 was chosen to dissociate anticoagulant activity from any putative anticancer effect. The half-life of LMWHs is two to four times that of unfractionated heparin; for this reason, typical clinical regimes involve administration of LMWHs once a day and heparin twice a day (Hirsh and Levine, 1992; Wu, 2001). As both dp12 and LMWHs are the result of polymeric heparin degradation, dp12 was also administered once a day. "
ABSTRACT: Expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 allows breast cancer cells to migrate towards specific metastatic target sites which constitutively express CXCL12. In this study, we determined whether this interaction could be disrupted using short-chain length heparin oligosaccharides. Radioligand competition binding assays were performed using a range of heparin oligosaccharides to compete with polymeric heparin or heparan sulphate binding to I(125) CXCL12. Heparin dodecasaccharides were found to be the minimal chain length required to efficiently bind CXCL12 (71% inhibition; P<0.001). These oligosaccharides also significantly inhibited CXCL12-induced migration of CXCR4-expressing LMD MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells. In addition, heparin dodecasaccharides were found to have less anticoagulant activity than either a smaller quantity of polymeric heparin or a similar amount of the low molecular weight heparin pharmaceutical product, Tinzaparin. When given subcutaneously in a SCID mouse model of human breast cancer, heparin dodecasaccharides had no effect on the number of lung metastases, but did however inhibit (P<0.05) tumour growth (lesion area) compared to control groups. In contrast, polymeric heparin significantly inhibited both the number (P<0.001) and area of metastases, suggesting a differing mechanism for the action of polymeric and heparin-derived oligosaccharides in the inhibition of tumour growth and metastases.British Journal of Cancer 09/2007; 97(6):761-8. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603928 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are parenteral anticoagulants that are widely used for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disease. These agents possess several advantages compared to standard heparin, including a more predictable anticoagulant response, better bioavailability allowing for subcutaneous therapy, and a longer half-life. Laboratory monitoring of the LMWHs uses an anti-factor Xa assay, but monitoring is generally not necessary for most patients. However, certain patient populations do benefit from an individualized approach to therapy and, in some cases, therapeutic monitoring, because of an increased bleeding risk and/or relative contraindications to anticoagulant therapy. For example, since LMWHs are cleared by the kidney, they must be used with caution in renal insufficiency. LMWHs are safe and effective during pregnancy but may not be the optimal antithrombotic agent in pregnant women with prosthetic valves. In addition, management around the time of delivery can be difficult because of the bleeding risk, particularly associated with epidural anesthesia. Therapeutic monitoring also may be useful for the morbidly obese, in children, and for patients with malignancy.Seminars in Hematology 08/2002; 39(3):172-8. DOI:10.1053/shem.2002.34090 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) are replacing unfractionated heparin (UH) as safe and effective agents for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolism. Although LMWH offer many advantages over UH, usage is less clearly defined in certain special populations, including renal dysfunction, obesity and pregnancy. This article will briefly review the pharmacology of LMWH and discuss usage in these special populations.Journal of Infusion Nursing 01/2003; 26(5):304-10. DOI:10.1097/00129804-200309000-00006