Bcl10 and MALT1, independent targets of chromosomal translocation in malt lymphoma, cooperate in a novel NF-kappa B signaling pathway.
ABSTRACT At least two distinct recurrent chromosomal translocations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of MALT lymphoma. The first, t(1;14), results in the transfer of the entire Bcl10 gene to chromosome 14 wherein Bcl10 expression is inappropriately stimulated by the neighboring Ig enhancer. The second, t(11;18), results in the synthesis of a novel fusion protein, API2-MALT1. Until now, no common mechanism of action has been proposed to explain how the products of these seemingly unrelated translocations may contribute to the same malignant process. We show here that Bcl10 and MALT1 form a strong and specific complex within the cell, and that these proteins synergize in the activation of NF-kappaB. The data support a mechanism of action whereby Bcl10 mediates the oligomerization and activation of the MALT1 caspase-like domain. This subsequently activates the IKK complex through an unknown mechanism, setting in motion a cascade of events leading to NF-kappaB induction. Furthermore, the API2-MALT1 fusion protein also strongly activates NF-kappaB and shows dependence upon the same downstream signaling factors. We propose a model whereby both the Bcl10.MALT1 complex and the API2-MALT1 fusion protein activate a common downstream signaling pathway that originates with the oligomerization-dependent activation of the MALT1 caspase-like domain.
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ABSTRACT: Next-generation DNA sequencing has accelerated the genetic characterization of many human primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). These discoveries can be lifesaving for the affected patients and also provide a unique opportunity to study the effect of specific genes on human immune function. In the past 18 months, a number of independent groups have begun to define novel PIDs caused by defects in the caspase recruitment domain family, member 11 (CARD11)-B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 10 (BCL10)-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1 [CBM]) signalosome complex. The CBM complex forms an essential molecular link between the triggering of cell-surface antigen receptors and nuclear factor κB activation. Germline mutations affecting the CBM complex are now recognized as the cause of novel combined immunodeficiency phenotypes, which all share abnormal nuclear factor κB activation and dysregulated B-cell development as defining features. For this "Current perspectives" article, we have engaged experts in both basic biology and clinical immunology to capture the worldwide experience in recognizing and managing patients with PIDs caused by CBM complex mutations.The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 08/2014; 134(2):276-284.
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ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin conjugation system plays an important role in immune regulation; however, the ubiquitin-specific proteases (USPs) that carry out deubiquitination of cellular substrates are poorly understood. Here we show that in vivo knockdown of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP9X attenuates T-cell proliferation. In addition, naïve CD4(+) T cells from USP9X knockdown chimeric mice display decreased cytokine production and T helper cell differentiation in vitro, which we confirmed in vivo by performing adoptive transfer of transgenic T cells and subsequent immunization. USP9X silencing in both a human T-cell line and mouse primary T cells reduced T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling-induced NF-κB activation. Mechanistically, USP9X interacts with Bcl10 of the Carma1-Bcl10-Malt1 (CBM) complex and removes the TCR-induced ubiquitin chain from Bcl10, which facilitates the association of Carma1 with Bcl0-Malt1. These results demonstrate that USP9X is a crucial positive regulator of the TCR signaling pathway and is required for T-cell function through the modulation of CBM complex formation.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A link with infectious agents, bacteria and viruses in particular, has been reported for many lymphoma entities. Marginal zone lymphomas (extranodal, nodal and splenic forms) are frequently associated with chronic infections, with important clinical, molecular, biological, and therapeutic implications. The well-known correlation between Helicobacter pylori and gastric MALT-lymphoma, the recently reported links between Chlamydophila psittaci and ocular adnexal MALT-lymphoma and Borrelia Burgdorferi and cutaneous MALT lymphoma constitute the best studied examples of lymphomagenic activity of bacteria, while the hepatitis C virus represents the most extensively investigated virus associated with marginal zone lymphomas. Biological and clinical features, therapeutic implications and future perspectives of these lymphoma-microbial associations are discussed in this review.Seminars in Cancer Biology 09/2013; · 7.44 Impact Factor