Bcl10 and MALT1, Independent Targets of Chromosomal Translocation in MALT Lymphoma, Cooperate in a Novel NF-κB Signaling Pathway
ABSTRACT At least two distinct recurrent chromosomal translocations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of MALT lymphoma. The first, t(1;14), results in the transfer of the entire Bcl10 gene to chromosome 14 wherein Bcl10 expression is inappropriately stimulated by the neighboring Ig enhancer. The second, t(11;18), results in the synthesis of a novel fusion protein, API2-MALT1. Until now, no common mechanism of action has been proposed to explain how the products of these seemingly unrelated translocations may contribute to the same malignant process. We show here that Bcl10 and MALT1 form a strong and specific complex within the cell, and that these proteins synergize in the activation of NF-kappaB. The data support a mechanism of action whereby Bcl10 mediates the oligomerization and activation of the MALT1 caspase-like domain. This subsequently activates the IKK complex through an unknown mechanism, setting in motion a cascade of events leading to NF-kappaB induction. Furthermore, the API2-MALT1 fusion protein also strongly activates NF-kappaB and shows dependence upon the same downstream signaling factors. We propose a model whereby both the Bcl10.MALT1 complex and the API2-MALT1 fusion protein activate a common downstream signaling pathway that originates with the oligomerization-dependent activation of the MALT1 caspase-like domain.
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ABSTRACT: The aetiology of OAL is undefined, although much attention has been recently focused on determining whether OAL is caused by an autoimmune disorder, chronic antigenic stimulation or both. It is becoming evident that infectious agents underlying chronic eye infection, as Chlamydia, may play a role in ocular lymphomagenesis. The high prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci in patients with OAL has suggested a potential oncogenic role for its tendency to cause chronic and persistent infections, although it has been documented an evident geographical variability and response to antibiotic treatment. For C. pneumoniae, the findings so far obtained are very limited not only for identification in OAL but also for the specific treatment with antibiotics. The recent molecular and cultural evidence of C. trachomatis in patients with OAL, seems to suggest that also this pathogen may contribute to pathogenesis of such lymphoma. The potential appli- cation of bacteria-eradicating therapy at local and systemic level may ultimately result in safer and more efficient therapeutic option for patients affected by these malignancies. Moreover, a close collaboration between experts in oph- thalmology, infectious diseases and hematology will help, in the future, to effectively manage this disease. This review attempts to weigh the currently available evidence regarding the role that Chlamydia play in development of OAL and focuses on patients with OAL observed at our Institution.Journal of Cancer Therapy 03/2013; 4(02):662-677. DOI:10.4236/jct.2013.42082
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ABSTRACT: MALT1 cleavage activity is linked to the pathogenesis of activated B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL), a chemoresistant form of DLBCL. We developed a MALT1 activity assay and identified chemically diverse MALT1 inhibitors. A selected lead compound, MI-2, featured direct binding to MALT1 and suppression of its protease function. MI-2 concentrated within human ABC-DLBCL cells and irreversibly inhibited cleavage of MALT1 substrates. This was accompanied by NF-κB reporter activity suppression, c-REL nuclear localization inhibition, and NF-κB target gene downregulation. Most notably, MI-2 was nontoxic to mice, and displayed selective activity against ABC-DLBCL cell lines in vitro and xenotransplanted ABC-DLBCL tumors in vivo. The compound was also effective against primary human non-germinal center B cell-like DLBCLs ex vivo.Cancer cell 12/2012; 22(6):812-24. DOI:10.1016/j.ccr.2012.11.003
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ABSTRACT: The collapse of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) wild populations strongly impacted the Atlantic cod fishery and led to the development of cod aquaculture. In order to improve aquaculture and broodstock quality, we need to gain knowledge of genes and pathways involved in Atlantic cod responses to pathogens and other stressors. The Atlantic Cod Genomics and Broodstock Development Project has generated over 150,000 expressed sequence tags from 42 cDNA libraries representing various tissues, developmental stages, and stimuli. We used this resource to develop an Atlantic cod oligonucleotide microarray containing 20,000 unique probes. Selection of sequences from the full range of cDNA libraries enables application of the microarray for a broad spectrum of Atlantic cod functional genomics studies. We included sequences that were highly abundant in suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries, which were enriched for transcripts responsive to pathogens or other stressors. These sequences represent genes that potentially play an important role in stress and/or immune responses, making the microarray particularly useful for studies of Atlantic cod gene expression responses to immune stimuli and other stressors. To demonstrate its value, we used the microarray to analyze the Atlantic cod spleen response to stimulation with formalin-killed, atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, resulting in a gene expression profile that indicates a strong innate immune response. These results were further validated by quantitative PCR analysis and comparison to results from previous analysis of an SSH library. This study shows that the Atlantic cod 20K oligonucleotide microarray is a valuable new tool for Atlantic cod functional genomics research. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10126-010-9335-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.Marine Biotechnology 12/2010; 13(4):733-50. DOI:10.1007/s10126-010-9335-6