Continued breast cancer risk reduction in postmenopausal women treated with raloxifene: 4-year results from the MORE trial. Multiple outcomes of raloxifene evaluation.
ABSTRACT Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator approved for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, has shown a significant reduction in breast cancer incidence after 3 years in this placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. This article includes results from an additional annual mammogram at 4 years and represents 3,004 additional patient-years of follow-up in this trial. Breast cancers were ascertained through annual screening mammograms and adjudicated by an independent oncology review board. A total of 7,705 women were enrolled in the 4-year trial; 2,576 received placebo, 2,557 raloxifene 60 mg/day, and 2,572 raloxifene 120 mg/day. Women were a mean of 66.5-years old at trial entry, 19 years postmenopause, and osteoporotic (low bone mineral density and/or prevalent vertebral fractures). As of 1 November 1999, 61 invasive breast cancers had been reported and were confirmed by the adjudication board, resulting in a 72% risk reduction with raloxifene (relative risk (RR) 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17, 0.46). These data indicate that 93 osteoporotic women would need to be treated with raloxifene for 4 years to prevent one case of invasive breast cancer. Raloxifene reduced the risk of estrogen receptor-positive invasive breast cancer by 84% (RR 0.16, 95% CI 0.09, 0.30). Raloxifene was generally safe and well-tolerated, however, thromboembolic disease occurred more frequently with raloxifene compared with placebo (p=0.003). We conclude that raloxifene continues to reduce the risk of breast cancer in women with osteoporosis after 4 years of treatment, through prevention of new cancers or suppression of subclinical tumors, or both. Additional randomized clinical trials continue to evaluate this effect in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, at risk for cardiovascular disease, and at high risk for breast cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Hereditary ovarian cancer accounts for at least 5% of the estimated 22,000 new cases of this disease during 2009. During this same time, over 15,000 will die from malignancy ascribed to ovarian origin. The bulk of these hereditary cases fits the hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome, while virtually all of the remainder will be consonant with the Lynch syndrome, disorders which are autosomal dominantly inherited. Advances in molecular genetics have led to the identification of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations which predispose to the hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome, and mutations in mismatch repair genes, the most common of which are MSH2 and MLH1, which predispose to Lynch syndrome. These discoveries enable relatively certain diagnosis, limited only by their variable penetrance, so that identification of mutation carriers through a comprehensive cancer family history might be possible. This paper reviews the subject of hereditary ovarian cancer, with particular attention to its molecular genetic basis, its pathology, and its phenotypic/genotypic heterogeneity.Molecular oncology 05/2009; 3(2):97-137. DOI:10.1016/j.molonc.2009.02.004 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Raloxifene hydrochloride is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that has antiestrogenic effects on breast and endometrial tissue and estrogenic effects on bone, lipid metabolism, and blood clotting. Raloxifene significantly improves serum lipids and serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk, but it has no significant effect on the risk of primary coronary events. A meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of raloxifene for osteoporosis showed the odds of fracture risk were 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.49-0.74) for raloxifene 60 mg/day compared with placebo. During 8 years of follow-up in an osteoporosis trial, the raloxifene group had a 76% reduction in the incidence of invasive ER-positive breast cancer compared with the placebo group. In the STAR trial, the incidence of invasive breast cancer was 4.30 per 1000 women-years with raloxifene and 4.41 per 1000 with tamoxifen; RR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.82-1.28. The effect of raloxifene on invasive breast cancer was, therefore, equivalent to that of tamoxifen with more favorable rates of adverse effects including uterine malignancy and clotting events. Millions of postmenopausal women could derive net benefit from raloxifene through reduced rates of fracture and invasive breast cancer.Clinical Interventions in Aging 02/2008; 3(4):601-9. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Raloxifene is a selective oestrogen receptor modulator used clinically for the treatment and the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The drug has been evaluated in the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene as an agent to reduce breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal women at high risk. However, about 30% of women who develop breast cancer do so in their premenopausal years. In this pilot study, salivary oestradiol and progesterone were determined throughout the menstrual cycle for a total of 22 subjects, 14 of whom completed pre- and postraloxifene (60 mg daily) salivary collections. The mean concentration of oestradiol during the menstrual cycle when subjects were taking raloxifene was significantly greater (P<0.001) than during baseline cycles. Neither salivary progesterone and cortisol nor menstrual cycle length were affected by raloxifene treatment. These data demonstrate that raloxifene administered to premenopausal women increases the concentration of oestradiol that diffuses into the salivary glands, and which presumably represents the concentration available to other organs as well. The results reflect increases in serum oestradiol reported earlier.Journal of Endocrinology 01/2007; 191(3):599-604. DOI:10.1677/joe.1.06791 · 3.59 Impact Factor