Factor analysis of computerized and traditional tests used in mild brain injury research

National Rehabilitation Hospital, Washington DC 20010, USA.
The Clinical Neuropsychologist (Impact Factor: 1.58). 09/2000; 14(3):287-94. DOI: 10.1076/1385-4046(200008)14:3;1-P;FT287
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The present study examines the relation between a set of computerized neuropsychological measures, Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM), and a set of traditional clinical neuropsychological tests. Both sets of tests have been employed in recent studies of mild brain injury. Factor analysis and stepwise regression indicate that both sets of tests measure similar underlying constructs of cognitive processing speed, resistance to interference, and working memory. The present findings indicate strong concordance between computerized and traditional neuropsychological measures and support the construct validity of ANAM and similar procedures.

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Available from: Joseph Bleiberg, Jul 20, 2015
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    • "p b 10e-5, n 2 = 0.174 HC N E, D, HM E N D Sum of all significant factors only (n = 7) Factors 1–3, 4–8 F(3, 152) = 12.35, p b 10e-6, n 2 = 0.196 HC N E, D, HM E N D processing. Due to the large number of dependent variables in the neuropsychological tests, standard data reduction techniques were used to reduce the tests using conceptually and theoretically categorized variables (Bilder et al., 2002; Bleiberg et al., 2000; Langenecker et al., 2007; Rund et al., 2006 "
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    ABSTRACT: Intermediate cognitive phenotypes (ICPs) are measurable and quantifiable states that may be objectively assessed in a standardized method, and can be integrated into association studies, including genetic, biochemical, clinical, and imaging based correlates. The present study used neuropsychological measures as ICPs, with factor scores in executive functioning, attention, memory, fine motor function, and emotion processing, similar to prior work in schizophrenia. Healthy control subjects (HC, n=34) and euthymic (E, n=66), depressed (D, n=43), or hypomanic/mixed (HM, n=13) patients with bipolar disorder (BD) were assessed with neuropsychological tests. These were from eight domains consistent with previous literature; auditory memory, visual memory, processing speed with interference resolution, verbal fluency and processing speed, conceptual reasoning and set-shifting, inhibitory control, emotion processing, and fine motor dexterity. Of the eight factor scores, the HC group outperformed the E group in three (Processing Speed with Interference Resolution, Visual Memory, Fine Motor Dexterity), the D group in seven (all except Inhibitory Control), and the HM group in four (Inhibitory Control, Processing Speed with Interference Resolution, Fine Motor Dexterity, and Auditory Memory). The HM group was relatively small, thus effects of this phase of illness may have been underestimated. Effects of medication could not be fully controlled without a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Use of the factor scores can assist in determining ICPs for BD and related disorders, and may provide more specific targets for development of new treatments. We highlight strong ICPs (Processing Speed with Interference Resolution, Visual Memory, Fine Motor Dexterity) for further study, consistent with the existing literature.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 09/2009; 122(3):285-93. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2009.08.018
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    • "As anticipated, the results indicated a substantial relationship between ANAM throughput scores and the WJ-III Cognitive Efficiency cluster, comprised of the visual matching and numbers reversed tests. The substantial correlation between the ANAM Matching to Sample scale and the WJ-III Fluid Reasoning cluster (concept formation and analysis-synthesis) was consistent with other findings (Bleiberg et al., 2000), which suggest that verbal coding may be involved in performance on this ANAM scale to assist recall. The results also indicated a relatively high relationship between the accuracy scores on the ANAM Matching to Sample and Logical Reasoning scales and the WJ-III General Intellectual Ability score (the g factor). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the relationship between a computerized neuropsychological assessment battery, the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) and a widely used ability measure, Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJ-III). Results indicated substantial relationship between the ANAM throughput (accuracy/response time) scores and the WJ-III Cognitive Efficiency cluster. An unexpectedly strong relationship was evident between accuracy scores on the ANAM Logical Reasoning scale and the WJ-III General Intellectual Ability score, purporting to measure the g factor. The findings support the viability of the ANAM as a time- and cost-effective tool for appraisal of cognitive function.
    The Clinical Neuropsychologist 04/2008; 22(2):305-20. DOI:10.1080/13854040701281483
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    • "Factor analysis employing both selected ANAM and traditional neurocognitive measures used to assess concussion and head injury (Bleiberg et al., 2000) "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the development and ongoing validation of the ANAM-sports medicine battery (ASMB) for use in concussion surveillance and management. A review of previous research utilizing the ASMB highlights current issues in concussion surveillance including: tracking cognitive recovery, effect of previous concussion history on acute concussion presentation, and clinical decision making using computerized measures. ASMB interpretation using reliable change indices or impairment indices is highlighted. Future development of the ASMB is discussed as it relates to interpretation of ASMB, development of appropriate norms, and defining adequate baseline assessment. This includes the definition of practice effects, the effects of maturation on test performance and definition of adequate baseline assessment that clearly defines a subject's normal cognitive performance level. ASMB is ready for cautious introduction into clinical practice for use by neuropsychologists with experience in both sports concussion and computerized testing.
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