Mutations of the pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI) gene in idiopathic chronic pancreatitis.
Article: Pathways to injury in chronic pancreatitis: decoding the role of the high-risk SPINK1 N34S haplotype using meta-analysis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The complex interactions between recurrent trypsin-mediated pancreatic injury, alcohol-associated pancreatic injury and SPINK1 polymorphisms in chronic pancreatitis (CP) are undefined. We hypothesize that CP occurs as a result of multiple pathological mechanisms (pathways) that are initiated by different metabolic or environmental factors (etiologies) and may be influenced differentially by downstream genetic risk factors. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating the differences in effect size of the high risk SPINK1 N34S haplotype on CP from multiple etiologies after combining clinical reports of SPINK1 N34S frequency using meta-analysis. The Pubmed and the Embase databases were reviewed. We studied 24 reports of SPINK1 N34S in CP (2,421 cases, 4,857 controls) using reported etiological factors as surrogates for pathways and multiple meta-analyses to determine the differential effects of SPINK1 N34S between alcoholic and non-alcoholic etiologies. Using estimates of between-study heterogeneity, we sub-classified our 24 studies into four specific clusters. We found that SPINK1 N34S is strongly associated with CP overall (OR 11.00; 95% CI: 7.59-15.93), but the effect of SPINK1 N34S in alcoholic CP (OR 4.98, 95% CI: 3.16-7.85) was significantly smaller than in idiopathic CP (OR 14.97, 95% C.I. = 9.09-24.67) or tropical CP (OR 19.15, 95% C.I. = 8.83-41.56). Studies analyzing familial CP showed very high heterogeneity suggestive of a complex etiology with an I(2) = 80.95%. The small effect of SPINK1 N34S in alcoholic subjects suggests that CP is driven through a different pathway that is largely trypsin-independent. The results also suggest that large effect sizes of SPINK1 N34S in small candidate gene studies in CP may be related to a mixture of multiple etiologic pathways leading to the same clinical endpoint.PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(4):e2003. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Molecular dynamics simulations reveal structural instability of human trypsin inhibitor upon D50E and Y54H mutations.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) plays an important role in protecting the pancreas against premature trypsinogen activation that causes pancreatitis. Various mutations in the SPINK1 gene were shown to be associated with patients with pancreatitis. Recent transfection studies identified intracellular folding defects, probably caused by mutation induced misfolding of D50E and Y54H mutations, as a common mechanism that reduces SPINK1 secretion and as a possible novel mechanism of SPINK1 deficiency associated with chronic pancreatitis. Using molecular dynamics, we investigated the effects of D50E and Y54H mutations on SPINK1 dynamics and conformation at 300 K. We found that the structures of D50E and Y54H mutants were less stable than and were distorted from those of the wild type, as indicated by the RMSD plots, RMSF plots and DSSP series. Specifically, unwinding of the top of helices (the main secondary structures) and the distortion of the loops above the helices were observed. It may be possible that this distorted protein structure may be recognized as "non-native" by members of the chaperone family; it may be further retained and targeted for degradation, leading to SPINK1 secretion reduction and subsequently pancreatitis in patients as Király et al. (Gut 56:1433, 2007) proposed.Journal of Molecular Modeling 09/2012; · 1.80 Impact Factor
Article: The prevalence of cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) and serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) gene mutations in Polish patients with alcoholic and idiopathic chronic pancreatitis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The main cause of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is excessive alcohol consumption. On the other hand, only 5-10% of heavy drinkers develop chronic pancreatitis. We have only limited information regarding the pathogenic mechanism by which alcohol leads to the disease. Mutations of the PRSS1 and SPINK 1 have been mostly implicated in hereditary and idiopathic CP, but their presence in other types of this disease have also been reported. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of PRSS1 and SPINK1 mutations in patients with chronic alcoholic (ACP) and idiopathic pancreatitis (ICP) as well as to investigate their relation to the clinical course of the disease. The study included 33 ACP and 14 ICP patients as well 46 healthy subjects. The diagnosis of CP was based on clinical data, ultrasound, and computed tomography. After isolation of DNA from peripheral blood two trypsinogen mutations were detected N29I and R122H by allelo-specific amplification polymerase chain reaction (ASA-PCR) and by the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Beside this N34S mutation of SPINK1 was analyzed by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). PRSS1 mutations have been detected in 11 (33%) patients with ACP. The frequency of the PRSS1 mutations was higher in patients with ACP than in controls (4.3%) (p < 0.001). The frequency of PRSS1 mutation was present in 21.4% of ICP patients, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in controls. Overall, six (18%) SPINK1 mutations in ACP group have been detected. Among 14 patients with ICP, in four (28.6%) of them SPINK1 has been detected. The same mutations have also been found in three (6.5%) control subjects. The frequency of the N34S mutation was higher in patients with ICP than in the controls (p < 0.05), but the frequency of N34S mutation did not differ between ACP and the control group. No relations have been detected between PRSS1 and SPINK1 mutations presence and clinical course and complications of CP. Those preliminary data suggest the high prevalence of SPINK1 and PRSS1 mutations in the Polish population, generally, as well as in CP patients. It may be speculated that those mutations contribute to the development of chronic pancreatitis, especially in patients with alcohol overindulgence.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 03/2011; 56(3):894-901. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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