Vaccination with irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni preferentially induced the accumulation of interferon-gamma producing T cells in the skin and skin draining lymph nodes of mice.
ABSTRACT Cytokine response to schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated in the skin of mice during the initial 72 h following infection. These studies showed a significant increase in the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 message in the skin in areas of cercarial penetration. The IL-4 message was detectable in the skin as early as 8 h after infection and the message for IL-10 appeared from 16 h after infection. However, mRNA for IFN-gamma was undetectable in the skin samples for up to 72 h after infection with normal cercariae. In sharp contrast, vaccination with irradiated cercariae induced IFN-gamma and IL-2 responses in the skin within 24 h. Analysis of the cytokine profile of cells isolated from the skin during these early time points showed that T cells are probably not a source of IL-4 or IL-10 in the skin of mice infected with normal cercariae. However, in vaccinated animals, the majority of the IFN-gamma is derived from skin-residing T cells. In vaccinated animals, responses in the skin were mirrored in the skin-draining lymph nodes as well. Analysis of the CD4/CD8 ratio showed a significant decrease in the skin following vaccination suggesting an increase in CD8+ cells. Interestingly however, when vaccinated animals were challenged with normal cercariae, there was a significant reduction in IFN-gamma response in the skin and its draining lymph nodes. These results show that vaccination with irradiated cercariae of S. mansoni, preferentially induce the accumulation of IFN-gamma producing T cells in the skin and skin-draining lymph nodes of mice.
Article: A role for parasite-induced PGE2 in IL-10-mediated host immunoregulation by skin stage schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Significant quantities of PGE(2) were produced by cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni following incubation with linoleic acid, a free fatty acid found on the surface of the skin. Cyclooxygenase (COX) 2 inhibitors failed to block this PGE(2) production, suggesting that a different biochemical pathway may be involved in the production of PGE(2) by the parasite. In addition, the parasites were also able to induce PGE(2) and IL-10 from human and mouse keratinocytes. Analysis of mouse skin during skin migratory phases of infection confirmed these in vitro observations. COX2 inhibitors blocked the parasite-induced PGE(2) and IL-10 from keratinocytes. Further analysis of the parasite secretions showed that the PGE(2)/IL-10-inducing effect was associated with a fraction <30 kDa molecular size. Addition of this fraction or parasite-stimulated keratinocyte culture supernatant to Con A-stimulated spleen cells resulted in the suppression of cell proliferation. This effect could be blocked by anti-IL-10 treatment. In sharp contrast, attenuation of the parasites with gamma-irradiation significantly abrogated their ability to induce PGE(2) or IL-10 from skin cells. Significance of IL-10 in host immunoregulation by skin stage schistosomula of S. mansoni was further confirmed by using IL-10-deficient mice. In these mice the normal subdued cutaneous reaction to the parasite was absent. Instead, a prominent cellular reaction occurred around the parasite, and there was considerable delay in parasitic migration through the skin. Thus these results suggest a key role for parasite-induced PGE(2) in IL-10-dependent down-regulation of host immune responses in the skin.The Journal of Immunology 10/2000; 165(8):4567-74. · 5.79 Impact Factor
Article: Immune events associated with high level protection against Schistosoma japonicum infection in pigs immunized with UV-attenuated cercariae.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The vaccination of radiation-attenuated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae can induce effective protection in artiodactyl, but the immune events related to protective immunity are not fully understood. To provide a paradigm for a human recombinant antigen vaccine, we have undertaken a vaccination and challenge experiment in pigs, which was recognized as an appropriate animal model in this type of study because of their similarity to human in immunology, and investigated the relative immune events induced by the radiation-attenuated S. japonicum cercariae. We found that pigs immunized once with 400 µw UV-irradiated cercariae exhibited 63.84% and 71.82% reductions in worm burden and hepatic eggs respectively. Protective immunity in vaccinated pigs was associated with high level productions of IgM, total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2; IgG2 was significantly increased in the acute infection. IFN-γ levels could be elicited by immunization. At week 6 post-infection, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 levels also showed a dramatic rise synchronously in vaccinated pigs. Moreover, the granzyme b, nk-lysin, ifnγ, il4 and il10 mRNA levels in early skin-draining lymph nodes of immunized pigs were higher than those in pigs with non-irradiated cercariae infection. In addition, cytotoxicity-related genes in the mesenteric lymph nodes were significantly upregulated in vaccinated pigs in the acute infection. Our results demonstrated that IFN-γ and IgG2 antibody production, as well as genes related to cytotoxicity are associated with the high level protection induced by UV-irradiated Schistosoma japonicum vaccine. These findings indicated that optimal vaccination against S. japonicum required the induction of IFN-γ, IgG2 antibody related to Th1 responses and cytotoxicity effect.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(10):e13408. · 4.09 Impact Factor