The renal tubular Na-Cl co-transporter (NCCT): a potential genetic link between blood pressure and bone density?
Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8029, USA.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (impact factor: 3.4). 05/2001; 16(4):691-4. pp.691-4
Article: Nutritional factors that influence change in bone density and stress fracture risk among young female cross-country runners.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To identify nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns associated with stress fracture risk and changes in bone density among young female distance runners. Two-year, prospective cohort study. Observational data were collected in the course of a multicenter randomized trial of the effect of oral contraceptives on bone health. One hundred and twenty-five female competitive distance runners ages 18-26 years. Dietary variables were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Bone mineral density and content (BMD/BMC) of the spine, hip, and total body were measured annually by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Stress fractures were recorded on monthly calendars, and had to be confirmed by radiograph, bone scan, or magnetic resonance imaging. Seventeen participants had at least one stress fracture during follow-up. Higher intakes of calcium, skim milk, and dairy products were associated with lower rates of stress fracture. Each additional cup of skim milk consumed per day was associated with a 62% reduction in stress fracture incidence (P < .05); and a dietary pattern of high dairy and low fat intake was associated with a 68% reduction (P < .05). Higher intakes of skim milk, dairy foods, calcium, animal protein, and potassium were associated with significant (P < .05) gains in whole-body BMD and BMC. Higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D, skim milk, dairy foods, potassium, and a dietary pattern of high dairy and low fat were associated with significant gains in hip BMD. In young female runners, low-fat dairy products and the major nutrients in milk (calcium, vitamin D, and protein) were associated with greater bone gains and a lower stress fracture rate. Potassium intake was also associated with greater gains in hip and whole-body BMD.Der Notarzt 08/2010; 2(8):740-50; quiz 794. · 0.28 Impact Factor
Chapter: Trace Elements and Bone[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The basic elements, carbon (C), oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), and nitrogen (N) and the abundant elements, calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P), represent 98% of the dry mass of an organism, while 0.5% of the dry mass consists of about 40 trace elements. The present definition of trace elements determines that their concentrations in the organism are below 50 mg/kg. We know from fifteen of these that they are essential trace elements, e.g., arsenic (Ar), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), fluoride (F), iodine (I), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn), while we do not have sufficient knowledge on elements such as cadmium (Cd), lithium (Li), bromine (Br), and others. Historically, the importance of trace elements was first shown in the nineteenth century for zinc in microorganisms (Aspergillus niger, Raulin 1869), and later on, for the relevance of iron in hematopoiesis and anemia, which was described by Osler, Stockman, and Cloetta (for citations see1).06/2010: pages 81-86;
Chapter: Phosphorus and Bone[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dietary phosphorus intake, from natural sources and food additives, is high in many Western countries, whereas calcium intake may be low. Phosphorus is readily absorbed from the intestine and the main regulatory site is the kidney. Elevated serum phosphorus concentration increases S-PTH concentration, which in turn increases bone resorption. Animal studies have shown that high phosphorus intake is deleterious to the skeleton. Findings from human studies indicate that a high intake of phosphorus, especially in conjunction with low calcium intake, is harmful to the skeleton. More studies are still needed to confirm these findings.06/2010: pages 87-97;
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