Hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1), a mammalian Ste20-related protein kinase, is a potent stimulator of the stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs/JNKs). Here we report activation of NFkappaB transcription factors by HPK1 that was independent of SAPK/JNK activation. Overexpression of a dominant-negative SEK1 significantly inhibited SAPK/JNK activation, whereas NFkappaB stimulation by HPK1 remained unaffected. Furthermore, activation of NFkappaB required the presence of full-length, kinase-active HPK1, whereas the isolated kinase domain of HPK1 was sufficient for activation of SAPK/JNK. We also demonstrate that overexpression of a dominant-negative IKKbeta blocks HPK1-mediated NFkappaB activation suggesting that HPK1 acts upstream of the IkappaB kinase complex. In apoptotic myeloid progenitor cells HPK1 was cleaved at a DDVD motif resulting in the release of the kinase domain and a C-terminal part. Although expression of the isolated HPK1 kinase domain led to SAPK/JNK activation, the C-terminal part inhibited NFkappaB activation. This dominant-negative effect was not only restricted to HPK1-mediated but also to NIK- and tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated NFkappaB activation, suggesting an impairment of the IkappaB kinase complex. Thus HPK1 activates both the SAPK/JNK and NFkappaB pathway in hematopoietic cells but is converted into an inhibitor of NFkappaB activation in apoptotic cells.
"However, different caspase substrate repertoires associated with proliferation and apoptosis, respectively, have to be proven and characterized. So far, only limited numbers of putative anti-apoptotic caspase substrates have been described that include RasGAP  or HPK-1 [41-43]. In this context, a very recent study describe a systematic computational screening method of caspase cleavage sites to provide more insight into the substrate specificity of caspases and facilitate the discovery of putative novel substrates . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The TNF receptor superfamily member CD95 (Fas, APO-1, TNFRSF6) is known as the prototypic death receptor in and outside the immune system. In fact, many mechanisms involved in apoptotic signaling cascades were solved by addressing consequences and pathways initiated by CD95 ligation in activated T cells or other "CD95-sensitive" cell populations. As an example, the binding of the inducible CD95 ligand (CD95L) to CD95 on activated T lymphocytes results in apoptotic cell death. This activation-induced cell death was implicated in the control of immune cell homeostasis and immune response termination. Over the past years, however, it became evident that CD95 acts as a dual function receptor that also exerts anti-apoptotic effects depending on the cellular context. Early observations of a potential non-apoptotic role of CD95 in the growth control of resting T cells were recently reconsidered and revealed quite unexpected findings regarding the costimulatory capacity of CD95 for primary T cell activation. It turned out that CD95 engagement modulates TCR/CD3-driven signal initiation in a dose-dependent manner. High doses of immobilized CD95 agonists or cellular CD95L almost completely silence T cells by blocking early TCR-induced signaling events. In contrast, under otherwise unchanged conditions, lower amounts of the same agonists dramatically augment TCR/CD3-driven activation and proliferation. In the present overview, we summarize these recent findings with a focus on the costimulatory capacity of CD95 in primary T cells and discuss potential implications for the T cell compartment and the interplay between T cells and CD95L-expressing cells including antigen-presenting cells.
Cell Communication and Signaling 04/2011; 9(1):7. DOI:10.1186/1478-811X-9-7 · 3.38 Impact Factor
"For the assays in HeLa-CD95 cells, 6-well titer plates were seeded with 0.5 Â10 5 HeLa-CD95 cells the day before transfection. Cells were transfected using Fugene with various expression vectors, together with the NF-kB-driven luciferase reporter plasmid (2 mg; Arnold et al, 2001) and Renilla luciferase plasmid (100 ng) used as normalization control. Subsequently, measurements were performed similar to those for 293T cells. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study explores the dilemma in cellular signaling that triggering of CD95 (Fas/APO-1) in some situations results in cell death and in others leads to the activation of NF-κB. We established an integrated kinetic mathematical model for CD95-mediated apoptotic and NF-κB signaling. Systematic model reduction resulted in a surprisingly simple model well approximating experimentally observed dynamics. The model postulates a new link between c-FLIPL cleavage in the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) and the NF-κB pathway. We validated experimentally that CD95 stimulation resulted in an interaction of p43-FLIP with the IKK complex followed by its activation. Furthermore, we showed that the apoptotic and NF-κB pathways diverge already at the DISC. Model and experimental analysis of DISC formation showed that a subtle balance of c-FLIPL and procaspase-8 determines life/death decisions in a nonlinear manner. We present an integrated model describing the complex dynamics of CD95-mediated apoptosis and NF-κB signaling.
Molecular Systems Biology 03/2010; 6(1):352. DOI:10.1038/msb.2010.6 · 10.87 Impact Factor
"p30II expression was associated with decreased expression of protein kinase D (PKD), which negatively modulates JNK signaling pathway , mediates cross-talk between different signaling systems, and is critical in processes as diverse as cell proliferation and apoptosis . Interestingly, in Jurkat T lymphocytes expressing p30II, there were no detectable levels of I kappa B kinase gamma (IKKγ), which is important for NF-κB signaling in response to both T cell activation signals and Tax . p30II expression was associated with increased Hematopoetic Progenitor Kinase-1 (HPK-1), a known NF-κB activator . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a deltaretrovirus that causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and is implicated in a variety of lymphocyte-mediated disorders. HTLV-1 contains both regulatory and accessory genes in four pX open reading frames. pX ORF-II encodes two proteins, p13II and p30II, which are incompletely defined in the virus life cycle or HTLV-1 pathogenesis. Proviral clones of the virus with pX ORF-II mutations diminish the ability of the virus to maintain viral loads in vivo. Exogenous expression of p30II differentially modulates CREB and Tax-responsive element-mediated transcription through its interaction with CREB-binding protein/p300 and represses tax/rex RNA nuclear export.
Herein, we further characterized the role of p30II in regulation of cellular gene expression, using stable p30II expression system employing lentiviral vectors to test cellular gene expression with Affymetrix U133A arrays, representing approximately 33,000 human genes. Reporter assays in Jurkat T cells and RT-PCR in Jurkat and primary CD4+ T-lymphocytes were used to confirm selected gene expression patterns. Our data reveals alterations of interrelated pathways of cell proliferation, T-cell signaling, apoptosis and cell cycle in p30II expressing Jurkat T cells. In all categories, p30II appeared to be an overall repressor of cellular gene expression, while selectively increasing the expression of certain key regulatory genes.
We are the first to demonstrate that p30II, while repressing the expression of many genes, selectively activates key gene pathways involved in T-cell signaling/activation. Collectively, our data suggests that this complex retrovirus, associated with lymphoproliferative diseases, relies upon accessory gene products to modify cellular environment to promote clonal expansion of the virus genome and thus maintain proviral loads in vivo.
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