Lysosomal destabilization during macrophage damage induced by cholesterol oxidation products.
ABSTRACT We have previously shown that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) induces damage to the macrophage lysosomal membranes, with ensuing leakage of lysosomal contents and macrophage cell death. Cholesterol oxidation products (ChOx) have been reported to be the major cytotoxic components of oxidized LDL/LDL- and also to stimulate cholesterol accumulation in vascular cells. In the present study, we characterized the initial events during macrophage damage induced by cholesterol oxidation products (ChOx). Within 24 h of exposure, ChOx caused lysosomal destabilization, release to the cytosol of the lysosomal marker-enzyme cathepsin D, apoptosis, and postapoptotic necrosis. Enhanced autophagocytosis and chromatin margination was found 12 h after the exposure to ChOx, whereas apoptosis and postapoptotic necrosis was pronounced 24 and 48 h after the exposure. Some lysosomal vacuoles were then filled with degraded cellular organelles, indicating phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies by surviving cells. Because caspase-3 activation was detected in the ChOx-exposed cells, lysosomal destabilization may associate with the leakage of lysosomal enzymes, and activation of the caspase cascade. MnSOD mRNA levels were markedly increased after 24 h of exposure to ChOx, suggesting associated induction of mitochondrial protection repair or turnover. We conclude that ChOx-induced damage to lysosomes and mitochondria are sequelae to the cascade of oxysterol cytotoxic events. The early disruption of lysosomes induced by ChOx, with resultant autophagocytosis may be a critical event in apoptosis and/or necrosis of macrophages/foam cells during the development of atherosclerotic lesions.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Mangafodipir exerts pharmacological effects, including vascular relaxation and protection against oxidative stress and cell death induced by oxysterols. Additionally, mangafodipir has been proposed for cardiovascular imaging. The primary metabolites of mangafodipir, manganese dipyridoxyl ethyldiamine (MnPLED) and its constituent dipyridoxyl diphosphate (Dp-dp) also known as fodipir, are pharmacologically active. However, whether they affect oxysterol-induced cytotoxicity is currently unknown. In this study, we examine whether the mangafodipir metabolite affects 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7β-OH)-induced cell death and identify the underlying mechanisms. Methods: U937 cells were pretreated or not with mangafodipir substrate (Ms; 200 µm), MnPLED (100 µmol/l) or Dp-dp (100 µmol/l) for 8 h and then exposed to 7β-OH (28 µmol/l) for 18 h. Results: Our results revealed that pretreatment with MnPLED or Dp-dp protected against 7β-OH-induced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, apoptosis, and lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). MnPLED and Dp-dp, in par with Ms, confer protection against 7β-OH-induced cytotoxicity by reducing cellular ROS and stabilization of the lysosomal membrane. Conclusion: These results suggest that fodipir is the pharmacologically active part in the structure of mangafodipir, which prevents 7β-OH-induced cell death by attenuating cellular ROS and by preventing LMP. In addition, MnPLED, which is the dephosphorylated product of fodipir, exerts a similar protective effect against 7β-OH-induced cytotoxicity. This result indicates that dephosphorylation of fodipir does not affect its pharmacological actions. Altogether our result confirms the cytoprotective effect of mangafodipir and justifies its potential use as a cytoprotective adjuvant. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.Pharmacology 09/2013; 92(3-4):182-186. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autophagy is responsible for the bulk degradation of cytoplasmic contents including organelles through the lysosomal machinery. Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) causes cell death in brain by caspase-dependent and independent pathways. Ischemic insults also increase the formation of autophagosomes and activate autophagy. This study assessed the possible sex- and region-specific differences of autophagy activity in neonates subjected to HI brain injury. HI males had a modest decrease in lysosome numbers with no effect on LC3B-II protein in cortex. In contrast, HI females had decreased lysosome numbers and their LC3B-II protein expression was significantly increased in cortex following HI. In the hippocampus, both HI males and all females had increased numbers of autolysosomes suggesting activation of autophagy but with no effect on lysosome numbers, or Beclin-1 or LC3B protein levels. Males and females had increases in caspase 3/7 activity in their cortex and hippocampus following HI, though the increases were 3 to 6 fold greater in females. The present data: a) confirm greater caspase activation in brains of females compared to males following HI; b) suggest a partial failure to degrade LC3B-II protein in cortical but not hippocampal lysosomes of females as compared to males following neonatal HI; c) all females have greater basal autophagy activity than males which may protect cells against injury by increasing cell turnover and d) demonstrate that autophagy pathways are disturbed in regional- and sex-specific patterns in the rat brain following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.Neuroscience 10/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. The synthesis of cytolethal distending toxin appears essential in the infection process. In this work we evaluated the sequence of lethal events in HeLa cells exposed to cell lysates of two distinct strains, C. jejuni ATCC 33291 and C. jejuni ISS3. C. jejuni cell lysates (CCLys) were added to HeLa cell monolayers which were analysed to detect DNA content, death features, bcl-2 and p53 status, mitochondria/lysosomes network and finally, CD54 and CD59 alterations, compared to cell lysates of C. jejuni 11168H cdtA mutant. We found mitochondria and lysosomes differently targeted by these bacterial lysates. Death, consistent with apoptosis for C. jejuni ATCC 33291 lysate, occurred in a slow way (>48 h); concomitantly HeLa cells increase their endolysosomal compartment, as a consequence of toxin internalization besides a simultaneous and partial lysosomal destabilization. C. jejuni CCLys induces death in HeLa cells mainly via a caspase-dependent mechanism although a p53 lysosomal pathway (also caspase-independent) seems to appear in addition. In C. jejuni ISS3-treated cells, the p53-mediated oxidative degradation of mitochondrial components seems to be lost, inducing the deepest lysosomal alterations. Furthermore, CD59 considerably decreases, suggesting both a degradation or internalisation pathway. CCLys-treated HeLa cells increase CD54 expression on their surface, because of the action of lysate as its double feature of toxin and bacterial peptide. In conclusion, we revealed that C. jejuni CCLys-treated HeLa cells displayed different features, depending on the particular strain.APOPTOSIS 08/2014; 19(8). · 3.95 Impact Factor