Malaria vectors in the municipality of Serra do Navio, State of Amapá, Amazon Region, Brazil.

Seção de Parasitologia, Instituto Evandro Chagas, Funasa, Belém, PA, 66090-000, Brasil.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (Impact Factor: 1.57). 03/2001; 96(2):179-84. DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762001000200008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We conducted a survey to determine the vectors of malaria in six localities of Serra do Navio municipality, State of Amapá, from 1990 to 1991. Malaria infection rates of 29.3%, 6.2% and 20.4% were detected by human blood smears in Colônia Agua Branca, Porto Terezinha and Arrependido, respectively. There was no malaria infection detected in Serra do Navio. Fifteen species were identified among 3,053 anopheline mosquitoes collected by human bait and 64.4% were identified as Anopheles albitarsis s.l., 16.7% An. braziliensis, 9.5% An. nuneztovari and 5.8% An. triannulatus. An. darlingi, the main vector of malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil, was scare. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a total positive rate of 0.8% (23/2876) was found for six species: fifteen An. albitarsis s.l., four An. nuneztovari, and one of each: An. braziliensis, An. triannulatus, An. oswaldoi and An. rangeli. Nine of 23 positive mosquitoes were infected with Plasmodium malariae, eight with P. vivax VK210, three with P. vivax VK247 and three with P. falciparum. Since An. albitarsis s.l. was collected feeding on humans, was present in the highest density and was positive by ELISA for malaria sporozoites, it probably plays an important role in malaria transmission in this area.

Download full-text


Available from: David Charles Warhurst, Jul 03, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the Americas, areas with a high risk of malaria transmission are mainly located in the Amazon Forest, which extends across nine countries. One keystone step to understanding the Plasmodium life cycle in Anopheles species from the Amazon Region is to obtain experimentally infected mosquito vectors. Several attempts to colonise Ano- pheles species have been conducted, but with only short-lived success or no success at all. In this review, we review the literature on malaria transmission from the perspective of its Amazon vectors. Currently, it is possible to develop experimental Plasmodium vivax infection of the colonised and field-captured vectors in laboratories located close to Amazonian endemic areas. We are also reviewing studies related to the immune response to P. vivax infection of Anopheles aquasalis, a coastal mosquito species. Finally, we discuss the importance of the modulation of Plasmodium infection by the vector microbiota and also consider the anopheline genomes. The establishment of experimental mosquito infections with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei parasites that could provide interesting models for studying malaria in the Amazonian scenario is important. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of the parasites in New World vectors is crucial in order to better determine the interaction process and vectorial competence.
    Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 02/2015; DOI:10.1590/0074-02760140266 · 1.57 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anopheles nuneztovari sensu lato consists of cryptic species and genetic lineages, one of which is an important human malaria vector in the northern part of South America. Population structure and evolutionary genetics studies may help in the definition and delimitation of the species and lineages within this species complex, which is relevant information for organizations involved in malaria control efforts. In this study, 10 new microsatellite markers were isolated from 2 repeat-enriched genomic libraries of A. nuneztovari s.l. and were characterized in 37-48 mosquitoes of this species. All loci were highly polymorphic and encompassed 5-25 alleles per locus. The observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities ranged from 0.354 to 0.866 and from 0.613 to 0.932, respectively. Six of the 10 new loci showed significant deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and no linkage disequilibrium was detected. The loci described in this study were more polymorphic than the 18 previously characterized loci and appear to be promising markers for use in investigating the fine-scale population genetic structure and the boundaries of the cryptic species and lineages within the A. nuneztovari complex.
    Genetics and molecular research: GMR 01/2014; 13(4):8856-61. DOI:10.4238/2014.October.27.26 · 0.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The environmental changes resulting from the construction of hydroelectric dams may affect the fauna of insect vectors and consequently the epidemiology of the diseases they transmit. This work examined the mosquito and sand fly fauna in the area of the Aimorés hydroelectric power plant, analyzing the seasonal distribution and the degree of species synanthropy in different ecotopes. Between November, 2008 and September, 2009, entomological captures were performed with the help of HP light traps in the rural, urban, and forest areas of Aimorés, Ituêta, Resplendor, and Baixo Guandu counties. The fauna proved to be quite diversified. Twenty-two species of mosquitoes and 11 species of sand flies were found. Culex quinquefasciatus was predominant among mosquitoes (76.7%), while Lutzomyia intermedia prevailed among sand flies (34.5%). Some of the captured species have medical interest. Supported by the high degree of synanthropy, those species reinforce the need for epidemiological surveillance.
    Journal of Vector Ecology 12/2012; 37(2):397-401. DOI:10.1111/j.1948-7134.2012.00243.x · 1.44 Impact Factor