Increased functional cell surface expression of CFTR and DeltaF508-CFTR by the anthracycline doxorubicin.
ABSTRACT Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease that is caused by mutations within the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The most common mutation, DeltaF508, accounts for 70% of all CF alleles and results in a protein that is defective in folding and trafficking to the cell surface. However, DeltaF508-CFTR is functional when properly localized. We report that a single, noncytotoxic dose of the anthracycline doxorubicin (Dox, 0.25 microM) significantly increased total cellular CFTR protein expression, cell surface CFTR protein expression, and CFTR-associated chloride secretion in cultured T84 epithelial cells. Dox treatment also increased DeltaF508-CFTR cell surface expression and DeltaF508-CFTR-associated chloride secretion in stably transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. These results suggest that anthracycline analogs may be useful for the clinical treatment of CF.
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ABSTRACT: The presence of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) in cancer cells is known to be responsible for many therapeutic failures in current oncological treatments. Here, we show that the combination of different effectors like hyperthermia, iron oxide nanoparticles, and chemotherapeutics influences expression of MRP 1 and 3 in an adenocarcinoma cell line. BT-474 cells were treated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNP; 1.5 to 150 μg Fe/cm(2)) or mitomycin C (up to 1.5 μg/cm(2), 24 hours) in the presence or absence of hyperthermia (43°C, 15 to 120 minutes). Moreover, cells were also sequentially exposed to these effectors (MNP, hyperthermia, and mitomycin C). After cell harvesting, mRNA was extracted and analyzed via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, membrane protein was isolated and analyzed via sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting. When cells were exposed to the effectors alone or to combinations thereof, no effects on MRP 1 and 3 mRNA expression were observed. In contrast, membrane protein expression was influenced in a selective manner. The effects on MRP 3 expression were less pronounced compared with MRP 1. Treatment with mitomycin C decreased MRP expression at high concentrations and hyperthermia intensified these effects. In contrast, the presence of MNP only increased MRP 1 and 3 expression, and hyperthermia reversed these effects. When combining hyperthermia, magnetic nanoparticles, and mitomycin C, no further suppression of MRP expression was observed in comparison with the respective dual treatment modalities. The different MRP 1 and 3 expression levels are not associated with de novo mRNA expression, but rather with an altered translocation of MRP 1 and 3 to the cell membrane as a result of reactive oxygen species production, and with shifting of intracellular MRP storage pools, changes in membrane fluidity, etc, at the protein level. Our results could be used to develop new treatment strategies by repressing mechanisms that actively export drugs from the target cell, thereby improving the therapeutic outcome in oncology.International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2013; 8:351-63. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S37465 · 4.20 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: ABCG2, or breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), is an ATP-binding cassette half transporter that has been shown to transport a wide range of substrates including chemotherapeutics, antivirals, antibiotics and flavonoids. Given its wide range of substrates, much work has been dedicated to developing ABCG2 as a clinical target. But where can we intervene clinically and how can we avoid the mistakes made in past clinical trials targeting P-glycoprotein? This review will summarize the normal tissue distribution, cancer tissue expression, substrates and inhibitors of ABCG2, and highlight the challenges presented in exploiting ABCG2 in the clinic. We discuss the possibility of inhibiting ABCG2, so as to increase oral bioavailability or increase drug penetration into sanctuary sites, especially the central nervous system; and at the other end of the spectrum, the possibility of improving ABCG2 function, in the case of gout caused by a single nucleotide polymphism. Together, these aspects of ABCG2/BCRP make the protein a target of continuing interest for oncologists, biologists, and pharmacologists.Current pharmaceutical biotechnology 11/2010; 12(4):595-608. DOI:10.2174/138920111795163913 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: With better understanding of the cellular and molecular pathophysiology underlying cystic fibrosis (CF), novel drugs are being developed that specifically target the molecular defects of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-activated chloride channel on the plasma membrane that causes CF. Starting with cell-based high-throughput screening, small molecules have been identified that are able to fix specific molecular defects of various disease-causing CFTR mutants. With the successful development of ivacaftor, a "potentiator" that enhances CFTR chloride channel activity, new types of small-molecule compounds that "correct" the misfolding and misprocessing of the most common CF-causing mutation, F508del, are actively being sought for. Recent studies focused on the potential mechanisms of action of some of the investigational CFTR "correctors" shed new light on how the F508del mutant can be targeted in an attempt to ameliorate the clinical symptoms associated with CF. A multi-layer combinational approach has been proposed to achieve the high-potency correction necessary for significant clinical outcome. The mechanistic insights obtained from such studies will shape the future therapeutics development for the vast majority of CF patients.