Vardenafil increases penile rigidity and tumescence in erectile dysfunction patients: a RigiScan and pharmacokinetic study
ABSTRACT The pharmacodynamic effect on penile rigidity and tumescence and the pharmacokinetic properties of single oral doses of 10 and 20 mg vardenafil, a new PDE5-inhibitor, were investigated in 21 erectile dysfunction patients. Patients were evaluated with RigiScan on three occasions in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover fashion, while receiving visual sexual stimulation. Relative to placebo, a single dose of 10 mg vardenafil led to a mean increase in the duration of >60% penile rigidity of 24.4 min (95% CI: 7.4 to 41.3) at the base and of 24.8 min (8.5 to 41.1) at the tip. For the 20-mg dose, the increase in duration of > 60% penile rigidity relative to placebo was 37.2 min (20.2 to 54.1) at the base and 28.7 min (12.7 to 44.7) at the tip. Single doses of 10 and 20 mg vardenafil led to a rapid rise in the plasma concentrations of vardenafil, with a median tmax of 0.9 h and 0.7 h and a geometric mean Cmax of 9.1 microg/l (geometric SD = 1.63) and 20.9 microg/l (geometric SD = 1.83), respectively. In the post-absorptive phase, the concentrations declined with an average terminal t 1/2 of 4.2 h (geometric SD = 1.27) and 3.9 h (geometric SD = 1.31). The systemic exposure of vardenafil expressed as AUC normalized for dose and body weight was dose-proportional (associated 90% CI: -4 to 30%) as well as Cmax (associated 90% CI: -12 to 33%). The treatments were well tolerated. There was a small, clinically irrelevant reduction in blood pressure with a small compensatory rise in heart rate. There were no electrocardiographic effects or relevant changes of the safety laboratory screens. The observed pro-erectile properties, pharmacokinetic characteristics and safety profile make vardenafil a suitable candidate for further evaluation in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
Article: Vardenafil dihydrochloride.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vardenafil (VAR) is synthetic, highly selective, and potent inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-5 which competitively inhibits cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) hydrolysis and thus increases cGMP levels. It is clinically approved for treatment of erectile dysfunction in men, including diabetic and postprostatectomy patients. Several methods of VAR synthesis are included in this review. UV spectroscopy of VAR showed a λmax of approximately 270nm, and IR spectroscopy principal peaks were observed at 3420 (NH), 1724 (CO), 1600 (CC, and CN), 1491 (CHCH) cm(-1). Characteristic carbonyl (CO) carbon was observed in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 162.44ppm. The molecular mass was observed at m/z=488.9 (molecular weight=488.2) and the fragmentation pattern was studied using ion trap mass spectrometry. In addition, different analytical methods for determination of vardenafil are also described in this profile. Pharmacokinetic properties of VAR have great impact on efficacy. VAR is rapidly absorbed and slowly metabolized, with an absolute bioavailability of 15%. It is extensively metabolized by CYP3A4 into several metabolites, the most pharmacologically active of which is N-desethyl VAR (M1). The elimination half-life of VAR and M1 is about 4-5h. VAR is primarily excreted as metabolites in the feces and to a small extent in urine. VAR is generally well tolerated, with a favorable safety profile and few transient side effects, including headache, flushing, dyspepsia, and rhinitis.Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients and Related Methodology 01/2014; 39:515-44. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-800173-8.00009-X
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ABSTRACT: Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are the most commonly used treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). Since the launch of sildenafil, several drugs-including mirodenafil, sildenafil citrate (sildenafil), tadalafil, vardenafil HCL (vardenafil), udenafil, and avanafil-have become available. Mirodenafil is a newly developed pyrrolopyrimidinone compound, which is a potent, reversible, and selective oral PDE5 inhibitor. Mirodenafil was launched in Korea in 2007, and an orally disintegrating film of mirodenafil was developed in 2011 for benefitting patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets. This study aimed to review the pharmacokinetic characteristic profile of mirodenafil and report evidence on its efficacy in the case of ED. In addition, we reviewed randomized controlled studies of mirodenafil's daily administration and efficacy for lower urinary tract symptoms.04/2014; 32(1):18-27. DOI:10.5534/wjmh.2014.32.1.18