Nonverbal learning disability: adult outcomes.
ABSTRACT There are few empirical studies of the adult outcomes of nonverbal learning disability (NLD). An overwhelming majority of NLD studies has been devoted to the nature of academic difficulties of school children, whereas the few follow-up studies have tended to be limited to college-age young adults. Herein, it is argued that the problems of adults with NLD do not fall solely in academic areas, and that early academic remediation programs might do well to include intervention in emotional and social skills enhancement.
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ABSTRACT: This article reviews the relationship between different learning disabilities, language disorders, and the psychiatric disorders that are commonly associated with learning disabilities and language disorder: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders, depression, and conduct or antisocial personality disorder. The complex associations between language disorders and specific learning disabilities--dyslexia, nonverbal learning disorder, dyscalculia--and the various psychiatric disorders are discussed. Clinical vignettes are presented to highlight the impact of these disorders on a child's social and psychological development and the importance of early recognition and treatment.Journal of Child Neurology 11/2004; 19(10):814-26. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since the original work of Myklebust et al., the concept of a syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) has undergone considerable development and expansion, most notably in the work of Rourke. These authors have proposed a model of white matter dysfunction, predominantly in the right cerebral hemisphere, which is thought to underlie the cognitive and behavioral impairments seen in individuals with NLD. Recent research has focused on assessing the applicability of Rourke's conceptualization of the NLD syndrome and the white matter model to various neurologic, neurodevelopmental, and genetic disorders. This paper highlights recent investigations of the NLD model with respect to velocardiofacial syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, high functioning autism, neuro-fibromatosis type I, and metachromatic leukodystrophy, and also provides a brief discussion of recent conceptualizations of the NLD model in the broader context of disorders of social and emotional functioning, and of other novel avenues of NLD research.Current Psychiatry Reports 11/2002; 4(5):323-30. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) are developmental disorders in which linguistic ability is reported to be stronger than in disorders from which they must be distinguished for diagnosis. Children and adults with AS and NLD share pragmatic weaknesses, atypical social behaviours, and some cognitive features. To date, potential similarities between these disorders in oral language have not been directly examined in the literature. A review of the available research suggests that adequate structural language is another area of similarity for AS and NLD. However, systematic investigations of phonology, morphology, or syntax were not found; thus, the evidence for largely intact structural language in these disorders is indirect. The review also pointed to a common semantic profile across both disorders, characterized by strong vocabulary breadth in the face of limited depth and organization. These higher-order problems with semantics are proposed to be consistent with theoretical accounts of poor integrative abilities in AS and NLD, and to contribute to the well-documented pragmatic difficulties in these disorders.Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 01/2012; 6(1):519–534. · 2.96 Impact Factor