Ovarian Surface Epithelium: Biology, Endocrinology, and Pathology 1

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, British Columbia Women's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6H 3V5, Canada.
Endocrine Reviews (Impact Factor: 21.06). 05/2001; 22(2):255-88. DOI: 10.1210/edrv.22.2.0422
Source: PubMed


The epithelial ovarian carcinomas, which make up more than 85% of human ovarian cancer, arise in the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). The etiology and early events in the progression of these carcinomas are among the least understood of all major human malignancies because there are no appropriate animal models, and because methods to culture OSE have become available only recently. The objective of this article is to review the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the control of normal and neoplastic OSE cell growth, differentiation, and expression of indicators of neoplastic progression. We begin with a brief discussion of the development of OSE, from embryonic to the adult. The pathological and genetic changes of OSE during neoplastic progression are next summarized. The histological characteristics of OSE cells in culture are also described. Finally, the potential involvement of hormones, growth factors, and cytokines is discussed in terms of their contribution to our understanding of the physiology of normal OSE and ovarian cancer development.

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Available from: Nelly Auersperg, Oct 03, 2015
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    • "tunica albuginea , a layer of connective tissue that protects the internal layer , which harbors growing follicles containing the oocyte or oocytes that will be expelled during ovulation ( Gougeon , 2003 ) . The ovarian cortex of humans and rodents is encapsulated by a specialized monolayer of mesothelium , the ovarian surface epithelium ( OSE ) ( Auersperg et al . , 2001 ) ."
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    ABSTRACT: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released from the cell by multiple mechanisms. The extracellular form of this purine is processed by ectonucleotidases, resulting in a variety of dephosphorylated metabolites that can bind to specific receptors found in the membrane of target cells; such purinergic signaling is important as an autocrine-paracrine intercellular communication system that influences tissue physiology. In this review, we summarize the studies analyzing purinergic activity in the ovary, which can modulate cellular physiology -including sensitivity to gonadotropins- in several ovarian cell types, including the cumulus-cell complex, granulosa cells, theca cells, and the ovarian surface epithelium. These functions thus support a role for ATP as an important intra-ovarian messenger, and open new lines of research that can improve our understanding of mechanisms regulating ovarian function and the fine-tuning of folliculogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Molecular Reproduction and Development 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/mrd.22537 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    • "For many years, the ovarian surface epithelium was thought to be the source of most ovarian cancers. Some of the evidence for this relates to the observation of inclusion cysts in the contralateral ovary of ovarian cancer patients (Scully, 1977; Auersperg et al., 2001), and the surface epithelial cell has been well studied in this regard. More recently, others have proposed that at least some ovarian cancers may arise from the fimbria or distal fallopian tube in women (Crum et al., 2007; Kindelberger et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: The domestic laying chicken has been intensely selected to be a persistent ovulator. That is, the tendency for broodiness has been nearly eliminated and, given the appropriate lighting and nutrition, many strains of laying hens produce an egg on almost every day. The regulatory mechanisms involved in coordination of neuroendocrine and ovarian events have been well studied and described. In spite of this, there has been little attention focused on the oocyte itself. Recent findings in mammals have indicated that the oocyte produces several oocyte-specific factors, including growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic factor 15 (BMP15), which influence the surrounding cells and follicular development. Our studies indicate that GDF9 is present in the hen oocyte and influences granulosa cell proliferation. Additionally, Bmp15 mRNA is most abundant in oocytes of small follicles and stimulates an increase in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor mRNA in granulosa cells. BMP15 also enhances yolk uptake in growing follicles by decreasing tight junctions between granulosa cells. These studies indicate that the oocyte likely contributes to follicle development. Commercial laying hens also spontaneously develop ovarian cancer at a high rate, and susceptibility to this disease has been associated with ovulatory events in women. Studies have shown that ovulation, or events associated with ovulation, increase the prevalence of ovarian cancer in hens. Inhibition of ovulation in hens through a hormonal strategy mimicking oral contraceptives results in a decrease of ovarian cancer incidence. Recent studies in women have suggested that some ovarian tumors may arise from the distal oviduct. Gene expression profiles in very early stage tumors from hens show a high expression of oviduct-related genes, supporting the possibility of oviduct origin for some ovarian tumors. Genetic selection for high productivity in commercial laying hens has generated an efficient and valuable food source as well as an important animal model for human ovarian cancer. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.
    Poultry Science 02/2015; 94(4). DOI:10.3382/ps/peu083 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    • "The cancer is extremely heterogeneous and manifests in multiple morphological forms within the major commonly recognised sub-types [2]. The treatment options for the majority of the four sub-types, that is serous, endometrioids , mucinuous and clear cell carcinomas are similar and have remained unchanged for the last two decades [3]. "
    02/2015; 3(1):3:e1001. DOI:10.14343/JCSCR.2015.3e1001
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