Function of human eccrine sweat glands during dynamic exercise and passive heat stress
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of change in the density of activated sweat glands (ASG) and sweat output per gland (SGO) during dynamic constant-workload exercise and passive heat stress. Eight male subjects (22.8 +/- 0.9 yr) exercised at a constant workload (117.5 +/- 4.8 W) and were also passively heated by lower-leg immersion into hot water of 42 degrees C under an ambient temperature of 25 degrees C and relative humidity of 50%. Esophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, sweating rate (SR), and heart rate were measured continuously during both trials. The number of ASG was determined every 4 min after the onset of sweating, whereas SGO was calculated by dividing SR by ASG. During both exercise and passive heating, SR increased abruptly during the first 8 min after onset of sweating, followed by a slower increase. Similarly for both protocols, the number of ASG increased rapidly during the first 8 min after the onset of sweating and then ceased to increase further (P > 0.05). Conversely, SGO increased linearly throughout both perturbations. Our results suggest that changes in forearm sweating rate rely on both ASG and SGO during the initial period of exercise and passive heating, whereas further increases in SR are dependent on increases in SGO.
- SourceAvailable from: sagens.erciyes.edu.tr
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To investigate the pattern changes in the index of sweat ion concentration at skin surface with increasing sweat during passive heat stress in humans, we measured conductivity of the perfused water with sweat as the index of sweat ion concentration and sweat rate, continuously at the chest skin surface. Eight healthy subjects (22.4 +/-1.0 years) were passively heated by lower-leg immersion in a hot water bath of 42 degrees C for 50 min in an ambient temperature of 28 degrees C and relative humidity of 50%. The internal temperature (Tor) thresholds of sweat rate and index of sweat ion concentration were almost similar. Concomitant onset for the index of sweat ion concentration and sweat rate occurred but two types of linear regression lines were identified in the relationship between the index of sweat ion concentration and sweat rate at a boundary sweat rate value of 0.30 +/- 0.08 mg cm(-2) min(-1). The slope of the regression line at low levels of sweat (slope 0.02 +/- 0.01 V mg(-1) cm(-2) min(-1)) was significantly gradual compared with that at moderate levels of sweat (slope 0.30 +/- 0.08 V mg(-1) cm(-2) min(-1)) (P<0.05). These results suggest that at low levels of sweat the index of sweat ion concentration responds gradually with respect to sweat rate, which may be due to the ion reabsorption capacity of the sweat duct, and then the index of sweat ion concentration increased steeply with sweat rate.Arbeitsphysiologie 06/2005; 94(3):292-7. DOI:10.1007/s00421-005-1314-7 · 2.30 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The effect of skin temperature on the ion reabsorption capacity of sweat glands during exercise in humans is unknown. In this study, eight healthy subjects performed a 60-min cycling exercise at a constant intensity (60% VO(2max)) under moderate (25 degrees C) and cool (15 degrees C) ambient temperatures at a constant relative humidity of 40%. The sweating rate (SR), index of sweat ion concentration (ISIC) by using sweat conductivity, esophageal temperature (Tes), mean skin temperature, and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously under both ambient temperatures. The SR and ISIC were significantly lower at the cool ambient temperature versus the moderate temperature. There were no significant differences in the changes in HR and esophageal temperature between these ambient temperature conditions, while the mean skin temperature was significantly lower at the cool ambient temperature by almost 3 degrees C (P < 0.05). The slopes of the relationships between Tes and the SR and ISIC were significantly lower and the thresholds of these relationships were significantly higher at the cool ambient temperature (P < 0.05). The ion reabsorption capacity of the sweat glands was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in a cool environment (0.21 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.52 +/- 0.06 mg/cm(2)/min at 15 and 25 degrees C, respectively) as evaluated using the relationships for SR and ISIC. The results suggest that the ion reabsorption capacity of the sweat glands is influenced by skin temperature during exercise in humans.Arbeitsphysiologie 07/2005; 94(4):442-7. DOI:10.1007/s00421-005-1354-z · 2.30 Impact Factor