Function of human eccrine sweat glands during dynamic exercise and passive heat stress.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of change in the density of activated sweat glands (ASG) and sweat output per gland (SGO) during dynamic constant-workload exercise and passive heat stress. Eight male subjects (22.8 +/- 0.9 yr) exercised at a constant workload (117.5 +/- 4.8 W) and were also passively heated by lower-leg immersion into hot water of 42 degrees C under an ambient temperature of 25 degrees C and relative humidity of 50%. Esophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, sweating rate (SR), and heart rate were measured continuously during both trials. The number of ASG was determined every 4 min after the onset of sweating, whereas SGO was calculated by dividing SR by ASG. During both exercise and passive heating, SR increased abruptly during the first 8 min after onset of sweating, followed by a slower increase. Similarly for both protocols, the number of ASG increased rapidly during the first 8 min after the onset of sweating and then ceased to increase further (P > 0.05). Conversely, SGO increased linearly throughout both perturbations. Our results suggest that changes in forearm sweating rate rely on both ASG and SGO during the initial period of exercise and passive heating, whereas further increases in SR are dependent on increases in SGO.
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ABSTRACT: Moyen NE, Mündel T, Du Bois AM, Ciccone AB, Morton RH, Judelson DA. Increasing humidity affects thermoregulation during low-intensity exercise in women. Aviat Space Environ Med 2014; 85:905–11. Introduction: Women increasingly occupy manual labor jobs. However, research examining women working under hot-humid conditions is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to assess how increasing relative humidity (RH) affects women’s thermoregulation during low-intensity exercise characteristic of 8 h self-paced manual labor. Methods: There were 10 women (age: 23 ± 2 yr; body-surface area: 1.68 ± 0.13 m2; o2max: 46 ± 6 ml · kg−1 · min−1) who walked 90 min at 35% o2max in 35°C at 55% RH (55RH), 70% RH (70RH), and 85% RH (85RH). Investigators obtained: 1) rectal temperature (Tre), mean-weighted skin temperature (Tsk), and heart rate every 5 min; and 2) respiratory measures every 30 min. Results: Heat production (H) and required rate of evaporative cooling (Ereq) remained constant among trials; each RH increment significantly decreased evaporative heat loss (E), but increased heart rate and sweat rate. All other calorimetric and thermometric variables were similar between 55RH and 70RH, but significantly greater in 85RH. Tre only exceeded 38°C in 85RH after walking ∼80 min. Combined, dry and respiratory heat losses only compensated for Conclusion: Women exercising at low intensities in 35°C experienced most statistically significant physiological changes after 70RH. As H and Ereq remained constant across trials, heat storage increased with each 15% rise in RH because dry and respiratory heat losses minimally offset decreased E. Higher Tre, Tsk, and resultantly higher sweat rates reflected heat storage increases as E decreased in each trial. Overall, at 35°C Ta, we found women exercising for 90 min at low intensities remained at safe rectal temperatures up to 70% RH.Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 09/2014; 85(9). DOI:10.3357/ASEM.3993.2014 · 0.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Relatively few studies have investigated peripheral sweating mechanisms of long-distance runners. The aim of this study was to compare peripheral sweating mechanisms in male long-distance runners, and sedentary counterparts. Thirty six subjects, including 20 sedentary controls and 16 long-distance runners (with 7-12 years of athletic training, average 9.2±2.1 years) were observed. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing (QSART) with iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min) and 10% acetylcholine (ACh) were performed to determine axon reflex-mediated and directly activated (DIR, muscarinic receptor) sweating. Sweat onset time, sweat rate, number of activated sweat glands, sweat output per gland and skin temperature were measured at rest while maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) were measured during maximal cycling. Sweat rate, activated sweat glands, sweat output per gland, skin temperature and VO2max were significantly higher in the trained runners than in the sedentary controls. Sweat onset time was significantly shorter for the runners. In the group of long-distance runners, significant correlations were found between VO2max and sweat onset time (r2 = 0.543, P<0.01, n = 16), DIR sweat rate (r2 = 0.584, P<0.001, n = 16), sweat output per gland (r2 = 0.539, P<0.01, n = 16). There was no correlation between VO2max and activated sweat glands. These findings suggest that habitual long-distance running results in upregulation of the peripheral sweating mechanisms in humans. Additional research is needed to determine the molecular mechanism underlying these changes. These findings complement the existing sweating data in long-distance runners.PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e93976. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0093976 · 3.53 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: Temporal and thermal differences between the initiation of precursor, eccrine sweat and its surface discharge were investigated during passive heating. Sudomotor activity was evaluated using electrodermal (precursor) and ventilated sweat capsule measurements (dorsal fingers, dorsal hand, forehead, forearm). Passive heating significantly elevated auditory canal (0.5oC) and mean body temperatures (0.9oC). At each site, the precursor sudomotor thresholds occurred at a lower mean body temperature (P < .05), with an average elevation of 0.35oC (SD 0.04). However, discharged thresholds were delayed until this temperature had risen 0.53oC (SD 0.04), producing significant phase delays across sites (mean: 4.1 min [SD 0.5]; P < .05). It is concluded that precise sudomotor threshold determinations require methods that respond to sweat accumulating within the secretory coil, and not discharged secretions, reinforcing the importance of electrodermal techniques.Psychophysiology 08/2014; 52(1). DOI:10.1111/psyp.12292 · 3.18 Impact Factor