Chemical composition of turmeric oil--a byproduct from turmeric oleoresin industry and its inhibitory activity against different fungi.
ABSTRACT Curcumin, the yellow coloring pigment of turmeric is produced industrially from turmeric oleoresin. The mother liquor after isolation of curcumin from oleoresin known as curcumin removed turmeric oleoresin (CRTO) was extracted three times with n-hexane at room temperature for 30 min to obtain turmeric oil. The turmeric oil was subjected to fractional distillation under vacuum to get two fractions. These fractions were tested for antifugal activity against Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, Fusarium moniliforme and Penicillium digitatum by spore germination method. Fraction II was found to be more active. The chemical constituents of turmeric oil, fraction I and fraction II were determined by GC and identified by GC-MS. Aromatic turmerone, turmerone and curlone were major compounds present in fraction II along with other oxygenated compounds.
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ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States after cancers of the lung and the breast/prostate. While the incidence of CRC in the United States is among the highest in the world (approximately 52/100,000), its incidence in countries in India is among the lowest (approximately 7/100,000), suggesting that lifestyle factors may play a role in development of the disease. Whereas obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, a high-calorie diet, and a lack of physical activity promote this cancer, evidence indicates that foods containing folates, selenium, Vitamin D, dietary fiber, garlic, milk, calcium, spices, vegetables, and fruits are protective against CRC in humans. Numerous agents from "mother nature" (also called "nutraceuticals,") that have potential to both prevent and treat CRC have been identified. The most significant discoveries relate to compounds such as cardamonin, celastrol, curcumin, deguelin, diosgenin, thymoquinone, tocotrienol, ursolic acid, and zerumbone. Unlike pharmaceutical drugs, these agents modulate multiple targets, including transcription factors, growth factors, tumor cell survival factors, inflammatory pathways, and invasion and angiogenesis linked closely to CRC. We describe the potential of these dietary agents to suppress the growth of human CRC cells in culture and to inhibit tumor growth in animal models. We also describe clinical trials in which these agents have been tested for efficacy in humans. Because of their safety and affordability, these nutraceuticals provide a novel opportunity for treatment of CRC, an "old age" disease with an "age old" solution.Current Colorectal Cancer Reports 03/2013; 9(1):37-56.
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ABSTRACT: Curcumin is a major constituent of the turmeric plant Curcuma longa, a member of the Zingiberaceae family, which is cultivated in India, most parts of Southeast Asia, Asia and other parts of the world. Curcumin has been shown to afford a wide range of pharmacological activities encompassing antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiproliferative, proapoptotic and anti-atherosclerotic effects as well as medicinal benefits against neurodegenerative diseases, arthritis, allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, nephrotoxicity, AIDS, psoriasis, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, cardiovascular disease and lung fibrosis. Moreover, curcumin could suppress inflammatory cytokines as well as suppress various target proteins in cancer cell lines. Owing to its multi-faceted health benefits, curcumin has been used as health supplements as well as natural remedy while several clinical trials are under way to investigate its potential therapeutic usage. This chapter discusses the origins of curcumin’s biological activities in light of its structure-activity relationship. The structure of curcumin is comprised of the central 1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione bearing two terminal phenolic rings. Structural modification of this compound alters its biological activities either by affecting its selectivity, specificity or potency. Understanding of such structure-activity relationship may provide the impetus for further expanding its biological activity repertoire. Although it is an ambitious task to review the current state-of-the-art on the structure-activity relationship of curcumin, it should be mentioned that it is impossible for this chapter to provide a comprehensive account but rather a representative overview is given herein.Curcumin: Synthesis, Emerging Role in Pain Management and Health Implications, Edited by Daniel Loïc Pouliquen, 08/2014: chapter Elucidating the Structure-Activity Relationship of Curcumin and Its Biological Activities: pages 49-86; Nova Science Publishers., ISBN: 978-1-63321-319-7
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ABSTRACT: Ten previously unreported compounds above were isolated from Abies delavayi together with 100 known ones. (25R)-24,25-Dihydroabieslactone had the strongest cytotoxic activity against Colo-205 cells. Six known compounds showed weak inhibitory activity against LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages.Phytochemistry 06/2014; 105:164-170. · 3.35 Impact Factor