Chemical Composition of Turmeric Oil -A Byproduct from Turmeric Oleoresin Industry and Its Inhibitory Activity against Different Fungi
ABSTRACT Curcumin, the yellow coloring pigment of turmeric is produced industrially from turmeric oleoresin. The mother liquor after isolation of curcumin from oleoresin known as curcumin removed turmeric oleoresin (CRTO) was extracted three times with n-hexane at room temperature for 30 min to obtain turmeric oil. The turmeric oil was subjected to fractional distillation under vacuum to get two fractions. These fractions were tested for antifugal activity against Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, Fusarium moniliforme and Penicillium digitatum by spore germination method. Fraction II was found to be more active. The chemical constituents of turmeric oil, fraction I and fraction II were determined by GC and identified by GC-MS. Aromatic turmerone, turmerone and curlone were major compounds present in fraction II along with other oxygenated compounds.
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- "As such, the first attempt to elucidate the composition of turmeric was performed by Leach in 1904  in which he roughly described that " the chief ingredients of turmeric are starch, a slightly fluorescent, orange-yellow, volatile oil, a deep yellow coloring-matter (curcumin), soluble in alcohol, but insoluble in cold water, cellulose and a gum. " Subsequent studies in the late and early 2000 addressed this issue by investigating the chemical composition of turmeric   . Afterwards, Braga et al.  studied the effect of different solvent extraction methods on yield, composition and antioxidant activity of turmeric. "
ABSTRACT: Curcumin is a major constituent of the turmeric plant Curcuma longa, a member of the Zingiberaceae family, which is cultivated in India, most parts of Southeast Asia, Asia and other parts of the world. Curcumin has been shown to afford a wide range of pharmacological activities encompassing antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiproliferative, proapoptotic and anti-atherosclerotic effects as well as medicinal benefits against neurodegenerative diseases, arthritis, allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, nephrotoxicity, AIDS, psoriasis, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, cardiovascular disease and lung fibrosis. Moreover, curcumin could suppress inflammatory cytokines as well as suppress various target proteins in cancer cell lines. Owing to its multi-faceted health benefits, curcumin has been used as health supplements as well as natural remedy while several clinical trials are under way to investigate its potential therapeutic usage. This chapter discusses the origins of curcumin’s biological activities in light of its structure-activity relationship. The structure of curcumin is comprised of the central 1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione bearing two terminal phenolic rings. Structural modification of this compound alters its biological activities either by affecting its selectivity, specificity or potency. Understanding of such structure-activity relationship may provide the impetus for further expanding its biological activity repertoire. Although it is an ambitious task to review the current state-of-the-art on the structure-activity relationship of curcumin, it should be mentioned that it is impossible for this chapter to provide a comprehensive account but rather a representative overview is given herein.Curcumin: Synthesis, Emerging Role in Pain Management and Health Implications, Edited by Daniel Loïc Pouliquen, 08/2014: chapter Elucidating the Structure-Activity Relationship of Curcumin and Its Biological Activities: pages 49-86; Nova Science Publishers., ISBN: 978-1-63321-319-7
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ABSTRACT: Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is extensively used as a spice, food preservative and colouring material in India, China and South East Asia. It has been used in traditional medicine as a household remedy for various diseases, including biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, rheumatism and sinusitis. For the last few decades, extensive work has been done to establish the biological activities and pharmacological actions of turmeric and its extracts. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), the main yellow bioactive component of turmeric has been shown to have a wide spectrum of biological actions. These include its antiinflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, anticoagulant, antifertility, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antifibrotic, antivenom, antiulcer, hypotensive and hypocholesteremic activities. Its anticancer effect is mainly mediated through induction of apoptosis. Its antiinflammatory, anticancer and antioxidant roles may be clinically exploited to control rheumatism, carcinogenesis and oxidative stress-related pathogenesis. Clinically, curcumin has already been used to reduce post-operative inflammation. Safety evaluation studies indicate that both turmeric and curcumin are well tolerated at a very high dose without any toxic effects. Thus, both turmeric and curcumin have the potential for the development of modern medicine for the treatment of various diseases.
Article: TURMERIC: THE GOLDEN SPICE OF LIFE[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Turmeric is an ancient spice derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, which is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). Also known as 'Golden Spice of India' turmeric has been used in India for medicinal purposes for centuries. It has been used in traditional medicine as a household remedy for various diseases, including biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, rheumatism and sinusitis. In addition to its use as a spice and pigment, turmeric and its constituents mainly curcumin and essential oils shows a wide spectrum of biological actions. These include its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, anticoagulant, antifertility, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, anti-fibrotic, anti-venom, antiulcer, hypotensive and hypocholesteremic activities. Modern interest on turmeric started in 1970's when researchers found that the herb may possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Safety evaluation studies indicate that both turmeric and curcumin are well tolerated at a very high dose without any toxic effects. Thus, turmeric and its constituents have the potential for the development of modern medicine for the treatment of various diseases. INTRODUCTION: Turmeric has also been used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine, which integrates the medicinal properties of herbs with food. This extraordinary herb has found its way into the spotlight in the west and rest of globe, because of its wide range of medicinal benefits. Use of turmeric dates back nearly 4000 years to the Vedic culture in India. It is extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha medicine as home remedy for various diseases 1, 2 . Turmeric, derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, (family-Zingiberaceae) is a perennial plant having short stem with large oblong leaves, and bears ovate, pyriform or oblong rhizomes, which are often branched and brownish-yellow in colour.