p14ARF deletion and methylation in genetic pathways to glioblastomas.
ABSTRACT The CDKN2A locus on chromosome 9p21 contains the p14ARF and p16INK4a genes, and is frequently deleted in human neoplasms, including brain tumors. In this study, we screened 34 primary (de novo) glioblastomas and 16 secondary glioblastomas that had progressed from low-grade diffuse astrocytomas for alterations of the p14ARF and p16INK4a genes, including homozygous deletion by differential PCR, promoter hypermethylation by methylation-specific PCR, and protein expression by immunohistochemistry. A total of 29 glioblastomas (58%) had a p14ARF homozygous deletion or methylation, and 17 (34%) showed p16INK4a homozygous deletion or methylation. Thirteen glioblastomas showed both p14ARF and p16INK4a homozygous deletion, while nine showed only a p14ARF deletion. Immunohistochemistry revealed loss of p14ARF expression in the majority of glioblastomas (38/50, 76%), and this correlated with the gene status, i.e. homozygous deletion or promoter hypermethylation. There was no significant difference in the overall frequency of p14ARF and p16INK4a alterations between primary and secondary glioblastomas. The analysis of multiple biopsies from the same patients revealed hypermethylation of p14ARF (5/15 cases) and p16INK4a (1/15 cases) already at the stage of low-grade diffuse astrocytoma but consistent absence of homozygous deletions. These results suggest that aberrant p14ARF expression due to homozygous deletion or promoter hypermethylation is associated with the evolution of both primary and secondary glioblastomas, and that p14ARF promoter methylation is an early event in subset of astrocytomas that undergo malignant progression to secondary glioblastoma.
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ABSTRACT: Despite extensive efforts in research and therapeutics, achieving longer survival for patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remains a formidable challenge. Furthermore, because of rapid advances in the scientific understanding of GBM, communication with patients regarding the explanations and implications of genetic and molecular markers can be difficult. Understanding the important biomarkers that play a role in GBM pathogenesis may also help clinicians in educating patients about prognosis, potential clinical trials, and monitoring response to treatments. This article aims to provide an up-to-date review that can be discussed with patients regarding common molecular markers, namely O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2), p53, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and 1p/19q. The importance of the distinction between a prognostic and a predictive biomarker as well as clinical trials regarding these markers and their relevance to clinical practice are discussed.Neurosurgical FOCUS 03/2015; 38(3):E4. DOI:10.3171/2015.1.FOCUS14755 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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