p14ARF deletion and methylation in genetic pathways to glioblastomas
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France. Brain Pathology
(Impact Factor: 3.84).
The CDKN2A locus on chromosome 9p21 contains the p14ARF and p16INK4a genes, and is frequently deleted in human neoplasms, including brain tumors. In this study, we screened 34 primary (de novo) glioblastomas and 16 secondary glioblastomas that had progressed from low-grade diffuse astrocytomas for alterations of the p14ARF and p16INK4a genes, including homozygous deletion by differential PCR, promoter hypermethylation by methylation-specific PCR, and protein expression by immunohistochemistry. A total of 29 glioblastomas (58%) had a p14ARF homozygous deletion or methylation, and 17 (34%) showed p16INK4a homozygous deletion or methylation. Thirteen glioblastomas showed both p14ARF and p16INK4a homozygous deletion, while nine showed only a p14ARF deletion. Immunohistochemistry revealed loss of p14ARF expression in the majority of glioblastomas (38/50, 76%), and this correlated with the gene status, i.e. homozygous deletion or promoter hypermethylation. There was no significant difference in the overall frequency of p14ARF and p16INK4a alterations between primary and secondary glioblastomas. The analysis of multiple biopsies from the same patients revealed hypermethylation of p14ARF (5/15 cases) and p16INK4a (1/15 cases) already at the stage of low-grade diffuse astrocytoma but consistent absence of homozygous deletions. These results suggest that aberrant p14ARF expression due to homozygous deletion or promoter hypermethylation is associated with the evolution of both primary and secondary glioblastomas, and that p14ARF promoter methylation is an early event in subset of astrocytomas that undergo malignant progression to secondary glioblastoma.
Available from: Leonard B Maggi
- "In addition to melanoma cases, nine of fifty glioblastoma patients have a specific deletion of Arf  "
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ABSTRACT: Since its discovery close to twenty years ago, the ARF tumor suppressor has played a pivotal role in the field of cancer biology. Elucidating ARF’s basal physiological function in the cell has been the focal interest of numerous laboratories throughout the world for many years. Our current understanding of ARF is constantly evolving to include novel frameworks for conceptualizing the regulation of this critical tumor suppressor. As a result of this complexity, there is great need to broaden our understanding of the intricacies governing the biology of the ARF tumor suppressor. The ARF tumor suppressor is a key sensor of signals that instruct a cell to grow and proliferate and is appropriately localized in nucleoli to limit these processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Role of the Nucleolus in Human Disease.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease 06/2014; 1842(6). DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2014.01.016 · 4.88 Impact Factor
Available from: Niklas Thon
- "This characteristic pattern has been associated with increased genetic instability, silencing of tumor suppressors such as TP53 and PTEN, and activation of oncogenes. Hypermethylation mostly occurs at the promoter CpG island of genes that are associated with tumor suppression,81,82 DNA repair,83 cell-cycle regulation,84 apoptosis,85,86 invasion,87,88 and migration.89 Interestingly, the methylation patterns differ between gliomas of WHO grade II–IV.90 "
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ABSTRACT: The identification of molecular genetic biomarkers considerably increased our current understanding of glioma genesis, prognostic evaluation, and treatment planning. In glioblastoma, the most malignant intrinsic brain tumor entity in adults, the promoter methylation status of the gene encoding for the repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) indicates increased efficacy of current standard of care, which is concomitant and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy with the alkylating agent temozolomide. In the elderly, MGMT promoter methylation status has recently been introduced to be a predictive biomarker that can be used for stratification of treatment regimes. This review gives a short summery of epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and treatment aspects of patients who are currently diagnosed with glioblastoma. The most important molecular genetic markers and epigenetic alterations in glioblastoma are summarized. Special focus is given to the physiological function of DNA methylation-in particular, of the MGMT gene promoter, its clinical relevance, technical aspects of status assessment, its correlation with MGMT mRNA and protein expressions, and its place within the management cascade of glioblastoma patients.
OncoTargets and Therapy 09/2013; 6:1363-1372. DOI:10.2147/OTT.S50208 · 2.31 Impact Factor
Available from: Regina C Armstrong
- "In silico analysis has suggested association of FBI-1 with gliomas (Rovin and Winn, 2005). LRF represses transcription of the tumor suppressor p14/ARF in humans, and inactivation of p14/ARF is often observed in glioblastoma multiforme (Nakamura et al., 2001). These findings confirm that LRF functions as an oncogene in CNS tumors derived from immature cell types. "
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ABSTRACT: Leukemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF) is a zinc-finger transcription factor that regulates differentiation and oncogenesis in multiple tissues and cell lineages. The potential role for LRF in cells of the CNS has not been examined to date. This study shows prominent nuclear expression of LRF in diverse neuronal populations and in oligodendrocytes. We focused on examining the function of LRF during the transition from oligodendrocyte progenitor (OP) to mature oligodendrocyte that is associated with myelination in the postnatal spinal cord. During spinal cord myelination, LRF is expressed in only a minority of OP cells whereas most mature oligodendrocytes exhibited nuclear LRF immunoreactivity. Mice with floxed alleles of the Zbtb7a gene, which encodes for LRF protein, were used for in vivo analysis of LRF function. Lentiviral driven Cre recombinase inactivation of LRF at postnatal day 7 reduced the proportion of OP cells that differentiated into mature oligodendrocytes by postnatal day 28. Astrocyte populations were not altered by LRF deletion in the same tissues. These results indicate that LRF deletion reduces differentiation within the oligodendrocyte lineage and does not alter OP lineage choice. In vitro analysis confirmed a specific effect of LRF on OP differentiation. In neonatal OP cultures, RNA interference targeting LRF inhibited OP differentiation while LRF transduction was sufficient to induce differentiation into oligodendrocytes. These results support a critical role for LRF in transcriptional control of differentiation in oligodendrocyte lineage cells during developmental myelination in the CNS.
Glia 09/2012; 60(9):1378-90. DOI:10.1002/glia.22356 · 6.03 Impact Factor
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