p14ARF deletion and methylation in genetic pathways to glioblastomas.
ABSTRACT The CDKN2A locus on chromosome 9p21 contains the p14ARF and p16INK4a genes, and is frequently deleted in human neoplasms, including brain tumors. In this study, we screened 34 primary (de novo) glioblastomas and 16 secondary glioblastomas that had progressed from low-grade diffuse astrocytomas for alterations of the p14ARF and p16INK4a genes, including homozygous deletion by differential PCR, promoter hypermethylation by methylation-specific PCR, and protein expression by immunohistochemistry. A total of 29 glioblastomas (58%) had a p14ARF homozygous deletion or methylation, and 17 (34%) showed p16INK4a homozygous deletion or methylation. Thirteen glioblastomas showed both p14ARF and p16INK4a homozygous deletion, while nine showed only a p14ARF deletion. Immunohistochemistry revealed loss of p14ARF expression in the majority of glioblastomas (38/50, 76%), and this correlated with the gene status, i.e. homozygous deletion or promoter hypermethylation. There was no significant difference in the overall frequency of p14ARF and p16INK4a alterations between primary and secondary glioblastomas. The analysis of multiple biopsies from the same patients revealed hypermethylation of p14ARF (5/15 cases) and p16INK4a (1/15 cases) already at the stage of low-grade diffuse astrocytoma but consistent absence of homozygous deletions. These results suggest that aberrant p14ARF expression due to homozygous deletion or promoter hypermethylation is associated with the evolution of both primary and secondary glioblastomas, and that p14ARF promoter methylation is an early event in subset of astrocytomas that undergo malignant progression to secondary glioblastoma.
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ABSTRACT: Next generation sequencing has become a powerful tool in dissecting and identifying mutations and genomic structural variants that accompany tumourigenesis. Sequence analysis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) illustrates the ability to rapidly identify mutations that may affect phenotype. Approximately 50% of human GBMs overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) which renders the EGFR protein a compelling therapeutic target. In brain tumours, attempts to target EGFR as a cancer therapeutic, however, have achieved little or no benefit. The mechanisms that drive therapeutic resistance to EGFR inhibitors in brain tumours are not well defined, and drug resistance contributes to the deadly and aggressive nature of the disease. Whole genome sequencing of four primary GBMs revealed multiple pathways by which EGFR protein abundance becomes deregulated in these tumours and will guide the development of new strategies for treating EGFR overexpressing tumours. Each of the four tumours displayed a different mechanism leading to increased EGFR protein levels. One mechanism is mediated by gene amplification and tandem duplication of the kinase domain. A second involves an intragenic deletion that generates a constitutively active form of the protein. A third combines the loss of a gene which encodes a protein that regulates EGFR abundance as well as an miRNA that modulates EGFR expression. A fourth mechanism entails loss of an ubiquitin ligase docking site in the C-terminal part of the protein whose absence inhibits turnover of the receptor.Mutagenesis 08/2014; DOI:10.1093/mutage/geu026 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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