p14ARF deletion and methylation in genetic pathways to glioblastomas.
ABSTRACT The CDKN2A locus on chromosome 9p21 contains the p14ARF and p16INK4a genes, and is frequently deleted in human neoplasms, including brain tumors. In this study, we screened 34 primary (de novo) glioblastomas and 16 secondary glioblastomas that had progressed from low-grade diffuse astrocytomas for alterations of the p14ARF and p16INK4a genes, including homozygous deletion by differential PCR, promoter hypermethylation by methylation-specific PCR, and protein expression by immunohistochemistry. A total of 29 glioblastomas (58%) had a p14ARF homozygous deletion or methylation, and 17 (34%) showed p16INK4a homozygous deletion or methylation. Thirteen glioblastomas showed both p14ARF and p16INK4a homozygous deletion, while nine showed only a p14ARF deletion. Immunohistochemistry revealed loss of p14ARF expression in the majority of glioblastomas (38/50, 76%), and this correlated with the gene status, i.e. homozygous deletion or promoter hypermethylation. There was no significant difference in the overall frequency of p14ARF and p16INK4a alterations between primary and secondary glioblastomas. The analysis of multiple biopsies from the same patients revealed hypermethylation of p14ARF (5/15 cases) and p16INK4a (1/15 cases) already at the stage of low-grade diffuse astrocytoma but consistent absence of homozygous deletions. These results suggest that aberrant p14ARF expression due to homozygous deletion or promoter hypermethylation is associated with the evolution of both primary and secondary glioblastomas, and that p14ARF promoter methylation is an early event in subset of astrocytomas that undergo malignant progression to secondary glioblastoma.
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ABSTRACT: We conducted a population-based study on glioblastomas in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (population, 1.16 million) to determine the frequency of major genetic alterations and their effect on patient survival. Between 1980 and 1994, 715 glioblastomas were diagnosed. The incidence rate per 100,000 population/year, adjusted to the World Standard Population, was 3.32 in males and 2.24 in females. Observed survival rates were 42.4% at 6 months, 17.7% at 1 year, and 3.3% at 2 years. For all of the age groups, younger patients survived significantly longer, ranging from a median of 8.8 months (<50 years) to 1.6 months (>80 years). Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) 10q was the most frequent genetic alteration (69%), followed by EGFR amplification (34%), TP53 mutations (31%), p16(INK4a) deletion (31%), and PTEN mutations (24%). LOH 10q occurred in association with any of the other genetic alterations and was predictive of shorter survival. Primary (de novo) glioblastomas prevailed (95%), whereas secondary glioblastomas that progressed from low-grade or anaplastic gliomas were rare (5%). Secondary glioblastomas were characterized by frequent LOH 10q (63%) and TP53 mutations (65%). Of the TP53 mutations in secondary glioblastomas, 57% were in hotspot codons 248 and 273, whereas in primary glioblastomas, mutations were more equally distributed. G:C-->A:T mutations at CpG sites were more frequent in secondary than primary glioblastomas (56% versus 30%; P = 0.0208). This suggests that the acquisition of TP53 mutations in these glioblastoma subtypes occurs through different mechanisms.Cancer Research 10/2004; 64(19):6892-9. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1337 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite extensive efforts in research and therapeutics, achieving longer survival for patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remains a formidable challenge. Furthermore, because of rapid advances in the scientific understanding of GBM, communication with patients regarding the explanations and implications of genetic and molecular markers can be difficult. Understanding the important biomarkers that play a role in GBM pathogenesis may also help clinicians in educating patients about prognosis, potential clinical trials, and monitoring response to treatments. This article aims to provide an up-to-date review that can be discussed with patients regarding common molecular markers, namely O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2), p53, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and 1p/19q. The importance of the distinction between a prognostic and a predictive biomarker as well as clinical trials regarding these markers and their relevance to clinical practice are discussed.Neurosurgical FOCUS 03/2015; 38(3):E4. DOI:10.3171/2015.1.FOCUS14755 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To study the expressions of p27 kip1 protein and p27mRNA, the hypermethylation of p27 kip1 and the relation between them in various stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. p27 protein and p27mRNA were detected by immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization respectively in 68 cases of normal liver, liver cirrhosis, pericancerous cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The hypermethylation of p27 kip1 was detected by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) in 44 cases of normal liver, liver cirrhosis, and HCC. The positive rate of p27 protein was 66.7% (4/6) in normal liver, 60.0% (6/10) in liver cirrhosis, 50.0% (12/24) in pericancerous cirrhosis and 21.4% (6/28) in HCC. There were no statistical differences in normal liver, liver cirrhosis and pericancerous cirrhosis, but the positive rate of p27 protein significantly decreased in HCC compared to that in the other groups (P = 0.006, chi2 = 7.664). The positive rate of p27 kip1 mRNA was 83.3% (5/6) in normal liver, 70.0% (7/10) in liver cirrhosis, 75.0% (18/24) in pericancerous cirrhosis and 25.0% (7/28) in HCC. There were no statistical differences in normal liver, liver cirrhosis and pericancerous cirrhosis, but the positive rate of p27 kip1 mRNA also significantly decreased in HCC compared to that in the other groups (P = 0.000, chi2 = 16.600). In addition, there was a significant correlation between the expression of p27 protein and p27mRNA in the integrated group of normal liver and liver cirrhosis. However, no significant correlation was found between pericancerous cirrhosis and HCC. Using MSP, we found that 1 HCC in 44 cases (including 6 cases of normal liver, 10 cases of liver cirrhosis and 28 cases of HCC) was methylated, whose p27 protein and p27mRNA were negative. The reduction or loss of p27 protein and p27mRNA are potentially involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. The hypermethylation of p27 might lead to the loss of p27mRNA transcription.World Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2005; 11(29):4587-91. · 2.43 Impact Factor