Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 function by ansamycins causes the morphological and functional differentiation of breast cancer cells

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.33). 05/2001; 61(7):2945-52.
Source: PubMed


17-(Allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) is an ansamycin antibiotic that binds to a conserved pocket in Hsp90 and induces the degradation of proteins that require this chaperone for conformational maturation. 17-AAG causes a retinoblastoma (RB)-dependent G1 block in cancer cells and is now in clinical trial. In breast cancer cells, G1 block is accompanied by differentiation and followed by apoptosis. The differentiation is characterized by specific changes in morphology and induction of milk fat proteins and lipid droplets. In cells lacking RB, neither G1 arrest nor differentiation occurs; instead, they undergo apoptosis in mitosis. Introduction of RB into these cells restores the differentiation response to 17-AAG. Inhibitors of the ras, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways cause accumulation of milk fat proteins and induction of lipid droplets when associated with G1 arrest but do not cause morphological changes. Thus, regulation of Hsp90 function by 17-AAG in breast cancer cells induces RB-dependent morphological and functional mammary differentiation. G1 arrest is sufficient for some but not all aspects of the phenotype. Induction of differentiation may be responsible for some of the antitumor effects of this drug.

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Available from: Neal Rosen, Apr 22, 2014
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    • "The Jurkat and HeLa cells were incubated for 24 h with concentrations close to the IC50 values of geraniin (0.7 and 5 µM, respectively) and 17-AAG (10 and 0.2 µM, respectively), The effects of geraniin and 17-AAG-treatments on the distribution of non-apoptotic cells differed significantly. In both tumor cell lines, treatment with geraniin caused a G2/M arrest (Figure 6 A, B), whereas 17-AAG induced a G1 and G2/M arrest (Figure 6 A, B), consistent with previous published results [31], [33], [34]. Moreover, following geraniin treatment the percentage of Jurkat and Hela cells with hypodiploid nuclei was 9.75±1.02% "
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    ABSTRACT: Besides its function in normal cellular growth, the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) binds to a large number of client proteins required for promoting cancer cell growth and/or survival. In an effort to discover new small molecules able to inhibit the Hsp90 ATPase and chaperoning activities, we screened, by a surface plasmon resonance assay, a small library including different plant polyphenols. The ellagitannin geraniin, was identified as the most promising molecule, showing a binding affinity to Hsp90α similar to that of 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AGG). Geraniin was able to inhibit in vitro the Hsp90α ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner, with an inhibitory efficiency comparable to that measured for 17-AAG. In addition, this compound compromised the chaperone activity of Hsp90α, monitored by the citrate synthase thermal induced aggregation assay. Geraniin decreased the viability of HeLa and Jurkat cell lines and caused an arrest in G2/M phase. We also proved that following exposure to different concentrations of geraniin, the level of expression of the client proteins c-Raf, pAkt, and EGFR was strongly down-regulated in both the cell lines. These results, along with the finding that geraniin did not exert any appreciable cytotoxicity on normal cells, encourage further studies on this compound as a promising chemical scaffold for the design of new Hsp90 inhibitors.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e74266. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0074266 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "*P <0.05; #P <0.01. (B) MCF7 or BT474 cells were transfected with negative control siRNA (Ctrl-siRNA) or insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) specific siRNA [53] for 48 hours and cells were harvested for detection of Akt phosphorylation by western blot (left panel) or mammosphere formation capability. Data presented as relative percentage of Ctrl-siRNA transfected cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Dysregulation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R)/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway was shown to correlate with breast cancer disease progression. Cancer stem cells are a subpopulation within cancer cells that participate in tumor initiation, radio/chemoresistance and metastasis. In breast cancer, breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) were identified as CD24-CD44+ cells or cells with high intracellular aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH+). Elucidation of the role of IGF-1R in BCSCs is crucial to the design of breast cancer therapies targeting BCSCs. Methods IGF-1R expression in BCSCs and noncancer stem cells sorted from xenografts of human primary breast cancers was examined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation. The role of IGF-1R in BCSCs was assessed by IGF-1R blockade with chemical inhibitor and gene silencing. Involvement of PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) as the downstream pathway was studied by their phosphorylation status upon IGF-1R inhibition and the effects of chemical inhibitors of these signaling molecules on BCSCs. We also studied 16 clinical specimens of breast cancer for the expression of phosphor-Akt in the BCSCs by FACS. Results Expression of phosphorylated IGF-1R was greater in BCSCs than in non-BCSCs from xenografts of human breast cancer, which were supported by western blot and immunoprecipitation experiments. The sorted IGF-1R-expressing cells displayed features of cancer stem/progenitors such as mammosphere formation in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo, both of which were suppressed by knockdown of IGF-1R. A specific inhibitor of the IGF-1R, picropodophyllin suppressed phospho-AktSer473 and preferentially decreased ALDH+ BCSC populations of human breast cancer cells. Furthermore, picropodophyllin inhibited the capacity of CD24-CD44+ BCSCs to undergo the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process with downregulation of mesenchymal markers. Inhibitors of signal molecules downstream of IGF-1R including PI3K/Akt/mTOR also reduced the ALDH+ population of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, suppressed BCSCs in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion Our data support the notion that IGF-1R is a marker of stemness, and IGF-1R and its downstream PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway are attractive targets for therapy directed against breast cancer stem/progenitors.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 05/2013; 15(3):R39. DOI:10.1186/bcr3423 · 5.49 Impact Factor
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    • "Mammary tumor cell differentiation is characterized by an arrest in cell proliferation, nuclear and cytoplasmatic morphological changes and also by the increased expression of the components of milk such as lipids [47,48]. The accumulation of neutral lipid drops in the cell cytoplasm is used as a marker of this process. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Glibenclamide (Gli) binds to the sulphonylurea receptor (SUR) that is a regulatory subunit of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP channels). Binding of Gli to SUR produces the closure of KATP channels and the inhibition of their activity. This drug is widely used for treatment of type 2-diabetes and it has been signaled as antiproliferative in several tumor cell lines. In previous experiments we demonstrated the antitumoral effect of Gli in mammary tumors induced in rats. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of Gli on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell proliferation and to examine the possible pathways involved in this action. Results The mRNA expression of the different subunits that compose the KATP channels was evaluated in MDA-MB-231 cells by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results showed the expression of mRNA for both pore-forming isoforms Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 and for the regulatory isoform SUR2B in this cell line. Gli inhibited cell proliferation assessed by a clonogenic method in a dose dependent manner, with an increment in the population doubling time. The KATP channel opener minoxidil increased clonogenic proliferation, effect that was counteracted by Gli. When cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry, Gli induced a significant cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase, together with an up-regulation of p27 levels and a diminution in cyclin E expression, both evaluated by immunoblot. However, neither differentiation evaluated by neutral lipid accumulation nor apoptosis assessed by different methodologies were detected. The cytostatic, non toxic effect on cell proliferation was confirmed by removal of the drug. Combination treatment of Gli with tamoxifen or doxorubicin showed an increment in the antiproliferative effect only for doxorubicin. Conclusions Our data clearly demonstrated a cytostatic effect of Gli in MDA-MB-231 cells that may be mediated through KATP channels, associated to the inhibition of the G1-S phase progression. In addition, an interesting observation about the effect of the combination of Gli with doxorubicin leads to future research for a potential novel role for Gli as an adjuvant in breast cancer treatment
    BMC pharmacology & toxicology 01/2013; 14(1):6. DOI:10.1186/2050-6511-14-6
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