Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 function by ansamycins causes the morphological and functional differentiation of breast cancer cells.
ABSTRACT 17-(Allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) is an ansamycin antibiotic that binds to a conserved pocket in Hsp90 and induces the degradation of proteins that require this chaperone for conformational maturation. 17-AAG causes a retinoblastoma (RB)-dependent G1 block in cancer cells and is now in clinical trial. In breast cancer cells, G1 block is accompanied by differentiation and followed by apoptosis. The differentiation is characterized by specific changes in morphology and induction of milk fat proteins and lipid droplets. In cells lacking RB, neither G1 arrest nor differentiation occurs; instead, they undergo apoptosis in mitosis. Introduction of RB into these cells restores the differentiation response to 17-AAG. Inhibitors of the ras, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways cause accumulation of milk fat proteins and induction of lipid droplets when associated with G1 arrest but do not cause morphological changes. Thus, regulation of Hsp90 function by 17-AAG in breast cancer cells induces RB-dependent morphological and functional mammary differentiation. G1 arrest is sufficient for some but not all aspects of the phenotype. Induction of differentiation may be responsible for some of the antitumor effects of this drug.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Neal Rosen, Apr 22, 2014
SourceAvailable from: dea.lib.unideb.hu
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ABSTRACT: Trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4′-hydroxystilbene (PTER), a natural dimethylated analog of resveratrol, preferentially induces certain cancer cells to undergo apoptosis and could thus have a role in cancer chemoprevention. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a ligand-dependent transcription factor whose activation results in growth arrest and/or apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. Here we investigated the potential of PTER-isothiocyanate (ITC) conjugate, a novel class of hybrid compound (PTER-ITC) synthesized by appending an ITC moiety to the PTER backbone, to induce apoptotic cell death in hormone-dependent (MCF-7) and -independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines and to elucidate PPARγ involvement in PTER-ITC action. Our results showed that when pre-treated with PPARγ antagonists or PPARγ siRNA, both breast cancer cell lines suppressed PTER-ITC-induced apoptosis, as determined by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and cleaved caspase-9 expression. Furthermore, PTER-ITC significantly increased PPARγ mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner and modulated expression of PPARγ-related genes in both breast cancer cell lines. This increase in PPARγ activity was prevented by a PPARγ-specific inhibitor, in support of our hypothesis that PTER-ITC can act as a PPARγ activator. PTER-ITC-mediated upregulation of PPARγ was counteracted by co-incubation with p38 MAPK or JNK inhibitors, suggesting involvement of these pathways in PTER-ITC action. Molecular docking analysis further suggested that PTER-ITC interacted with 5 polar and 8 non-polar residues within the PPARγ ligand-binding pocket, which are reported to be critical for its activity. Collectively, our observations suggest potential applications for PTER-ITC in breast cancer prevention and treatment through modulation of the PPARγ activation pathway.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104592 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inhibitors of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) are of considerable current interest as targeted cancer therapeutic agents because of the ability to destabilize multiple oncogenic client proteins. Despite their resulting pleiotropic effects on multiple oncogenic pathways and hallmark traits of cancer, resistance to HSP90 inhibitors is possible and their ability to induce apoptosis is less than might be expected. Using an isogenic model for BAX knockout in HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells, we demonstrate the induction of BAX-dependent apoptosis at pharmacologically relevant concentrations of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG both in vitro and in tumor xenografts in vivo. Removal of BAX expression by homologous recombination reduces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo but allows a lower level of cell death via a predominantly necrotic mechanism. Despite reducing apoptosis, the loss of BAX does not alter the overall sensitivity to 17-AAG in vitro or in vivo. The results indicate that 17-AAG acts predominantly to cause a cytostatic antiproliferative effect rather than cell death and further suggest that BAX status may not alter the overall clinical response to HSP90 inhibitors. Other agents may be required in combination to enhance tumor-selective killing by these promising drugs. In addition, there are implications for the use of apoptotic endpoints in the assessment of the activity of molecularly targeted agents.Oncotarget 09/2013; 4(11). · 6.63 Impact Factor