Intrathecal HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 induces enhanced pain states mediated by spinal cord proinflammatory cytokines.
ABSTRACT Perispinal (intrathecal) injection of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp120 creates exaggerated pain states. Decreases in response thresholds to both heat stimuli (thermal hyperalgesia) and light tactile stimuli (mechanical allodynia) are rapidly induced after gp120 administration. gp120 is the portion of HIV-1 that binds to and activates microglia and astrocytes. These glial cells have been proposed to be key mediators of gp120-induced hyperalgesia and allodynia because these pain changes are blocked by drugs thought to affect glial function preferentially. The aim of the present series of studies was to determine whether gp120-induced pain changes involve proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1beta (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)], substances released from activated glia. IL-1 and TNF antagonists each prevented gp120-induced pain changes. Intrathecal gp120 produced time-dependent, site-specific increases in TNF and IL-1 protein release into lumbosacral CSF; parallel cytokine increases in lumbar dorsal spinal cord were also observed. Intrathecal administration of fluorocitrate (a glial metabolic inhibitor), TNF antagonist, and IL-1 antagonist each blocked gp120-induced increases in spinal IL-1 protein. These results support the concept that activated glia in dorsal spinal cord can create exaggerated pain states via the release of proinflammatory cytokines.
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ABSTRACT: The production of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a key role in chronic pain such as neuropathic pain. We investigated changes in cytokine expression in injured peripheral nerves and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) following electroacupuncture (EA) treatment. Neuropathic pain was induced by peripheral nerve injury to the left hind limb of Sprague-Dawley rats under pentobarbital anesthesia. Two weeks later, the nerve-injured rats were treated by EA for 10 minutes. The expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in peripheral nerves and DRG of neuropathic rats were significantly increased in nerve-injured rats. However, after EA, the cytokine expression levels were noticeably decreased in peripheral nerves and DRG. These results suggest that EA stimulation can reduce the levels of proinflamtory cytokines elevated after nerve injury.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012:792765. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: Intrathecal siRNA against Toll-like receptor 4 reduces nociception in a rat model of neuropathic pain.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neuropathic pain is characterized by hyperalgesia, allodynia and spontaneous pain. It often occurs as a result of injury to peripheral nerves, dorsal root ganglions (DRG), spinal cord, or brain. Recent studies have suggested that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) might play a role in neuropathic pain. In this study, we investigated the role of TLR4 in a rat chronic constriction injury (CCI) model and explored the feasibility of treating neuropathic pain by inhibiting TLR4. Our results demonstrated that intrathecal siRNA-mediated suppression of TLR4 attenuated CCI-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia through inhibiting the activation of NF-kappaB p65 and production of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta). These findings suggest that suppression of TLR4 mediated by intrathecally administered siRNA may be a new strategy for the treatment of neuropathic pain.International journal of medical sciences 01/2010; 7(5):251-9. · 2.24 Impact Factor
Article: Glial TNFα in the spinal cord regulates neuropathic pain induced by HIV gp120 application in rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is one of the most common forms of peripheral neuropathy, affecting about 30% of people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The symptoms of HIV-SN are dominated by neuropathic pain. Glia activation in the spinal cord has become an attractive target for attenuating chronic pain. This study will investigate the role of spinal TNFα released from glia in HIV-related neuropathic pain. Peripheral gp120 application into the rat sciatic nerve induced mechanical allodynia for more than 7 weeks, and upregulated the expression of spinal TNFα in the mRNA and the protein levels at 2 weeks after gp120 application. Spinal TNFα was colocalized with GFAP (a marker of astrocytes) and Iba1 (a marker of microglia) in immunostaining, suggesting that glia produce TNFα in the spinal cord in this model. Peripheral gp120 application also increased TNFα in the L4/5 DRG. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of TNFα siRNA or soluble TNF receptor reduced gp120 application-induced mechanical allodynia. Our results indicate that TNFα in the spinal cord and the DRG are involved in neuropathic pain, following the peripheral HIV gp120 application, and that blockade of the glial product TNFα reverses neuropathic pain induced by HIV gp120 application.Molecular Pain 01/2011; 7:40. · 3.53 Impact Factor