Progression of changes in dopamine transporter binding site density as a result of cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys.
ABSTRACT The present study examined the time course of alterations in levels of dopamine transporter (DAT) binding sites that accompany cocaine self-administration using quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography with [(3)H]WIN 35,428. The density of dopamine transporter binding sites in the striatum of rhesus monkeys with 5 d, 3.3 months, or 1.5 years of cocaine self-administration experience was compared with DAT levels in cocaine-naive control monkeys. Animals in the long-term (1.5 years) exposure group self-administered cocaine at 0.03 mg/kg per injection, whereas the initial (5 d) and chronic (3.3 months) treatment groups were each divided into lower dose (0.03 mg/kg per injection) and higher dose (0.3 mg/kg per injection) groups. Initial cocaine exposure led to moderate decreases in [(3)H]WIN 35,428 binding sites, with significant changes in the dorsolateral caudate (-25%) and central putamen (-19%) at the lower dose. Longer exposure, in contrast, resulted in elevated levels of striatal binding sites. The increases were most pronounced in the ventral striatum at the level of the nucleus accumbens shell. At the lower dose of the chronic phase, for example, significant increases of 21-42% were measured at the caudal level of the ventral caudate, ventral putamen, olfactory tubercle, and accumbens core and shell. Systematic variation of cocaine dose and drug exposure time demonstrated the importance of these factors in determining the intensity of increased DAT levels. With self-administration of higher doses especially, increases were more intense and included dorsal portions of the striatum so that every region at the caudal level exhibited a significant increase in DAT binding sites (20-54%). The similarity of these findings to previous studies in human cocaine addicts strongly suggest that the increased density of dopamine transporters observed in studies of human drug abusers are the result of the neurobiological effects of cocaine, ruling out confounds such as polydrug abuse, preexisting differences in DAT levels, or comorbid psychiatric conditions.
- Biological Psychiatry - BIOL PSYCHIAT. 01/2000; 47(8).
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether a history of responding under food reinforcement schedules that generated either high or low response rates would influence the acquisition and maintenance of cocaine self-administration. Eight experimentally naive rhesus monkeys were initially trained to respond on the right lever under either a fixed-ratio (FR) 50 or interresponse times (IRT) > 30-s schedule of food reinforcement. After 65 sessions of food-maintained responding, monkeys were surgically prepared with indwelling intravenous catheters and cocaine 0.03 mg/kg per injection (IV) was available on the left lever under a fixed-interval (FI) 5-min schedule. After at least 60 consecutive sessions at this dose, a cocaine dose-response curve (saline, 0.01-0.3 mg/kg per injection) was determined. The FR 50 schedule generated high rates of food-maintained responding (90.1 +/- 6.2 responses/min), while response rates under the IRT > 30-s schedule were low (1.9 +/- 0.1 responses/min). Across the 60 consecutive sessions under the FI 5-min schedule, linear changes in response rates and cocaine intake were significantly different between FR- and IRT-history monkeys. FR-history monkeys responded at higher rates than IRT-history subjects, while cocaine intake during the first 15 sessions was lower in FR- compared to IRT-history monkeys. Rates of cocaine-maintained responding after food-reinforcement histories were compared to response rates of monkeys initially trained to self-administer cocaine under an FI 5-min schedule (Nader and Reboussin 1994).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Psychopharmacology 05/1995; 118(3):287-94. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that withdrawal from repeated, intermittent infusions of cocaine in Lewis rats results in a long-lasting reduction in dopamine transporter levels in the nucleus accumbens. The reduction is dose-dependent, requires multiple injections as well as about a 10-day withdrawal period. In this investigation, we show that the decrease (34%) occurs in the shell rather than in the core of the nucleus accumbens, and that a second cycle of cocaine administration and withdrawal has no additional effect. Also, there were no changes in transporter binding in the caudate putamen, the olfactory tubercle or the ventral tegmental area. These results indicate that the limbic portions of the nucleus accumbens are involved in neurochemical adaptations during withdrawal from cocaine.Synapse 02/1996; 22(1):87-92. · 2.31 Impact Factor